I -beams: overview of the main types and their technical characteristics

It’s important to comprehend structural elements like I-beams when it comes to roofing. I-beams, sometimes referred to as universal beams or H-beams, are crucial components of contemporary building, particularly roofing. Because of their unique shape, which in cross-section resembles the capital letter "I," these beams have earned their name. This design minimizes the weight of the beam while offering significant strength, which makes them perfect for supporting large loads over extended distances.

I-beams come in a variety of forms, each with unique dimensions and load-bearing capacities that are intended for use in particular applications. W-beams, S-beams, and M-beams are the most popular varieties; they differ in terms of profile shape and size. For example, W-beams support heavier loads over wider spans better than S-beams because of their wider flanges. In contrast, M-beams provide greater strength in a more compact form and are utilized in applications where depth is a crucial consideration.

I-beams are characterized technically by their moment of inertia, which affects how resistant they are to twisting and bending forces, and by their section modulus, which establishes their bending strength. These features are essential to engineering designs because they guarantee that the beams can safely support the expected loads without failing or deflecting excessively.

Choosing the appropriate I-beam type for roofing applications is crucial to maintaining the roof’s longevity and structural integrity. The right type and size of beam are determined in large part by factors like span length, load requirements, and environmental conditions. Making well-informed decisions that comply with project specifications and safety standards can be aided by consulting with structural engineers or roofing specialists.

Main Types Technical Characteristics
1. Wide Flange Beams (W-Beams) Used in residential and commercial construction for their stability and load-bearing capacity.
2. S-Beams (Standard Beams) Commonly used in structures requiring light to moderate load-bearing capacities.
3. H-Piles Primarily used for deep foundation applications due to their ability to support heavy loads.

What is "I -beam"?

Building dependable, affordable homes in a timely manner is currently a top priority for many businesses. And more repurposed building materials are solved by these issues.

The I-Taurus Balka was primarily utilized in the industrial sector in Russia until recently, but it is currently gaining popularity. Recent years have seen the successful introduction of new I-beam species into the construction of typical residential structures.

Additionally, the "I-toe" in the construction is referred to as a wooden or metal profile, and it resembles the letter "n" in cross section. The word "Taurus" itself is derived from "the horns of the bull."

The IBRARETARA RNE in the home market.To. The product itself is still not well-known, and only a small number of manufacturers carry it. However, in other countries, very intriguing kinds are employed, combining engineering theory with the principles of physics.

Advantages and disadvantages

Let’s go over the key characteristics of the impaired beams. And they’re in great numbers!

Balka in the shape of a "n" is actually seven times stronger and thirty times tougher than a typical square beam with the same cross-sectional area because of a unique design. Is it not surprisingly true?

However, compared to a round pipe, an open cross-section (such as a corner or channel) has 400 times less open bearer small resistance to twisting. Consequently, the load, both constant and variable, must be calculated on the double-barrel beam that will be used.

The weight of people and equipment on the ceiling is the variable, and the constant is implied by the weight of the material in the form of beams, insulation, floors, and ceilings. Such precise errors in estimation have left the strength of the double-bearing base undeniable.

In the course of the operation There is no shrinkage and the I-beams’ dimensions don’t change. These beams have a 500 kg maximum bearing capacity per linear meter, but only 6.8 kg is needed for one linear meter.

Because of all of this, these beams can be used for fairly long runs—up to 24 meters—and their installation doesn’t require the use of specialized lifting mechanisms, though everything works more quickly when they do.

By the way, double-barrel beams from farms differ favorably in that they are simple to cut if needed, but are not crankable.

The beams are easily transported and are reasonably light and comfortable.

Additionally, the use of these beams influences the amount of overlap itself, the cost and weight of the equipment that needs to be brought to the construction site, and the permitted operating temperatures.

Regarding cost, we observe that the typical floor overlap is, naturally, less expensive. However, it should be remembered that in addition to the boards themselves, a crate, intermediate supports, and numerous other details are required. Since we are dealing with wood, such a foundation also requires maintenance on a regular basis.

In summary, I-beams are ideal for use as low-rise building’s rafters, groomers, and ceiling beams in addition to serving as frame components.

Wooden I -beam for low -rise construction

The most widely used wooden I-beams are now found in ceiling bearing elements and building rafter structures. Wooden I-beams work well with log, timber, block, and brick homes.

Technical characteristics: strength and weight

Glued lumber is used to make wooden I-beams. The wooden bars that make up both belts are secured with either an OSB insert or a wood fiber insert.

These beams are made from OSB and HDF overseas, and several factories in Russia make them from OSP and plywood wall, though there are still concerns about their quality.

Let’s examine these lobes’ technical features in more detail:

An illustration of an I-beam rafter system is as follows:

You can avoid a lot of mistakes by using the formula "tree+osb+tree," which is not possible when using a continuous wooden beam.

Comparison with other building materials

Let us enumerate the primary benefits of these beams. Because OSB will no longer "lead," they are straight and devoid of any bending moments. In addition, the beams are very easy to install and highly durable. There is no need for specialized knowledge to install them.

Here is a comparison of a typical trimming board and a wooden I-beam based on the primary indicators:

Additionally, double-barrel beams are significantly lighter than wood beams, precisely overlap wide spans, and maintain their geometry over time.

In addition, regular wooden bars run the risk of developing cracks, twisting, and shrinking:

Owing to the Disgenerate’s unique characteristics, they are so strong that they can overlap wide areas without the need for intermediate supports.

Therefore, load-bearing floors with spans of six to fifteen meters are supported by vuskate beams and beams with parallel belts! The office and residential spaces in this instance are fairly roomy, which is particularly stylish these days.

Furthermore, these benefits are particularly noteworthy in comparison to materials that are more widely used in the Russian market. The primary advantage lies in the mass of the I-Taurus:

By the way, because of the considerable differences in the degree of shrinkage, I-beams and conventional timber are not used at the same time. Therefore, if you continue to mix the two types of material, the walls’ flat support will disappear and the ceiling will lose its horizontality in a year or two.

Manufacturing materials: shelves and walls

Massive or specially modified wood is used for the upper and lower belts of the double-barrel beams, while plywood or OSB is used for the vertical filling.

The key to all of these benefits is that wood with a moisture content of no more than 18% is used in the production of damaged beams. To ensure that these beams don’t creak or have floor irregularities, two-component glue and stiffener ribs made of premium oriented-brown plates are used.

When temperature and humidity levels drop, high-quality beams maintain their valuable physical characteristics, and most common carpentry tools can be easily adjusted and corrected.

In this design, the bars must be used in their entirety, and a special milling cutter is used to create the gear spike joints. The wall on the glue is then placed into the beam belts’ grooves. The beam ends are fitted with stiff ribs. After that, the beams are covered with an antiseptic coating or sprayed with a solution.

The OSB plate is constructed from pressed wood chips that are joined by artificial resins. The chips are typically made of coniferous wood. All of this contributes to the stove’s excellent waterproof qualities. Since the wood pieces are entwined here, the result is a strong material that is homogeneous—that is, the same throughout—and free of stress concentrators.

The material is superior to regular plywood by a wide margin. Additionally, it is even more elastic, which allows it to perfectly hold components like screws, nails, and building brackets.

There are benefits to using such a basis. Therefore, there are drawbacks to natural lumber, one of which being the difficulty of visually assessing its quality. Artificial beams are as precise and dependable as they can be at the same time.

They do not break or rot, and they are free of flaws, knots, and deformations. Formal designs are created using these kinds of materials. Unlike wood, they are stronger, more resilient, and do not creak. They can be made with fewer natural raw materials and with less stringent quality control requirements.

This is a really fascinating video that shows you how to make wooden I-beams by hand:

Additionally, a plywood wall is used to produce wooden I-beams. Here, the shelves are constructed from rectangular wooden bars, and the wall is made of a unique type of waterproof plywood that resembles waves.

However, the word "plywood" in an interstory floor generally terrifies a lot of masters. Ultimately, we are discussing an enormous load! In actuality, the principle of pressure—one of the laws of physics—is at work here. Try placing a piece of plywood on the rib and see how sturdy it can get.

Probably you wondered, "Why can’t I just use a regular board as a wall since it’s stronger than OSB or plywood?"

In actuality, these materials undergo hot pressing during the production process, giving them a significantly higher density than regular wood. But in actuality, the board is only rarely used—only in dense breeds, following a professional deep impregnation.

Series and types: Modern variety

The dimensions of the ball—height, thickness, and width of each element—are taken into account by the IBRARETRARE OF THE ROADARTS. Okay. The types of wooden I-beams are as follows:

  • "BDK" – a claw of an I -beam with a wide shelf, designed for short spans.
  • "BDCU" – an enhanced beam with a wide shelf for long spans.
  • "BDKSH" – a wide beam for rafter systems, loaded structures and especially long spans.
  • "SDKU" – reinforced beam for the wall frame.
  • "SKSH" – a wide stand for the installation of a wall frame.

Also, each of these choices has a subspecies:

Double-barreled beams are occasionally made paired for specific projects, which increases their rigidity:

There is another variation of a wooden lounge, by the way: the connecting jumper is made of galvanized high-strength steel with a unique polymer coating, and the belt of the beams is made of dry coniferous wood.

Due to metal-wood contact, the wooden components of the beam must be treated with a fire-protective composition.

Features of application and installation

Such beams are very easy to use:

Such a setup in real life looks like this:

Additionally, we observe that the OSB beams’ strong construction and practical design enable you to conduct the required engineering communications right inside the ceilings.

Steel I -beams for powerful buildings

These days, planning solutions are so intricate and voluminous that it is impossible to construct anything without load-bearing steel beams, as no concrete structure can span more than seven meters.

A breakfast beam made of metal, as opposed to wood, can support a heavy weight, is resistant to biological influences like mold and bugs, and does not burn. It is true that, in the event of a fire, it may eventually lose its bearing capacity and corrode in the absence of protection. Furthermore, the metal double is heavy and requires specialized equipment to install.

However, since the foundations of a home attic support the maximum weight, steel beams are not used in the construction of attics. Additionally, these beams will end up being fairly heavy for walls composed of profiled timber and porous, cellular materials, which eventually causes shrinkage.

Types of steel for the manufacture of beams

These days, rolling steel, aluminum alloys, and steel casting are used to make I-beam metal beams. Here, steel is essentially an iron and carbon alloy with a few minor impurities and alloying agents added. In this context, low-acute is the most widely used.

The way that steel is produced can also vary; for instance, it can be boiled, semi-boiled, or calm. A, it is made with ordinary strength and either increased or high strength, depending on the properties of the steel.

Thus, low-carbon steels have reached a medium strength, and low-alloyed steels have already experienced a strength increase. The most robust, middle-aged.

Welded and rolling double -rotors: what is the difference?

Steel beams are connected by welding and are rolled or component depending on the type of section. Rolling machines, which are specialized installations with rotating rollers, are used to roll hot beams. This is accomplished by taking a thick ingot and moving it along Rolgang so that the beam takes on the desired shape.

The ingots are moved along a roller halt and processed by a roller during the rolling process, which causes the workpieces’ length to significantly increase and their cross section to progressively shrink and take on the shape of an Ilotar. This is a reasonably productive method, but it is not inexpensive because it requires sophisticated equipment.

However, automated lines are used to produce welded I-beams. This is accomplished by cutting blanks, gathering double-barrel profiles, and boiling them under the flux. Following that, the profiles will continue to be processed through rental in order to obtain the ideal shelf geometry.

The protective coating is then applied after the profile’s surface has been cleaned. The only way to create beams with the most precise measurements—thin walls and heterogeneous double—is through the use of welding technology.

Welded beams are advantageous because they enable the use of various steel types in a single structure and are up to 30% lighter than hot-rolled beams. For instance, there is one for the shelves and another for the walls.

Its most tense sections are therefore composed of stronger steel, while its less tense sections are composed of lower-carbon steel. This method lowers the beam’s cost by 5%.

Bistal refers to the beams themselves, which employ multiple stars from the brand simultaneously. The least amount of weight in the beam and, most importantly, belts make everything simple. Higher strength steel, specifically 14g2, 10g2s1, is used in these belts.

It should be noted that bistal breakfast beams are best used for static loads. Additionally, these will be 5–15% less expensive than beams composed of a single steel.

Although welding is less efficient than renting such profiles, welding makes it simpler to create beams with the correct dimensions. For instance, beams four meters or higher can only be created by welding.

Features of the design of steel lobes

Metal breakfast beams are frequently composed of various sections. For what purpose? The truth is that the beam varies in length while performing its function, and in some areas it is significantly shorter than permitted.

Additionally, a specific beam of the beam walls is permitted for various tasks. By the way, avoid using a wooden lifter when cranking. They use the following formula to determine the curvature of the beam’s walls:

Methods like concentrating metal in the ribs and reducing wall thickness are also well-liked; these techniques result in savings of 10–20%.

It turns out that you have to use more metal in these types of places than is necessary, which is already overspending. For this reason, although most beams have a profile that is constant along its whole length, profiles with variable cross-section are occasionally made in order to save money.

Series and numbers of steel doubles

Because metal I-beams serve various functions, their characteristics may vary. Beams having parallel shelves are therefore designated as follows:

  • "Sh" – these are double -barrels with wide shelves, withstanding significant loads.
  • "U" – beams with narrow shelves for residential construction.
  • "D" – I -beams with medium shelves.
  • "TO" – beams specially produced for columns, quite heavy and durable.

By the inclination’s corner There are various types of beams.

  • "M" – a beam with inclined shelves, for the construction of the suspended tracks. Here the angle of inclination does not exceed 12%. Moreover, 12% and 16% is the maximum for the inner angle.
  • "WITH" – a heltar for strengthening the shaft trunks, with an angle of inclination of faces up to 16%.

With some degree of precision, I-toearians categorize as follows:

  • "B»—Balka of ordinary manufacturing accuracy. Suitable for most building tasks.
  • "IN" – products of increased accuracy, specially designed for complex tasks, where the smallest errors are important.

There are two types of metal breakfasts in terms of shelf shape: those with parallel shelves or those with internal faces that slope.

However, the extra set of these beams:

These subspecies still exist:

When building a house, a professional who has precise calculations for the allowable load on the foundation and the construction project itself should select steel beams.

Additionally, there is a different kind of impaired beam that blends metal and wood. By the way, Europe has been using this since 1970.

I-beams are essential to the world of roofing structures because of their robust qualities and adaptable design. The primary I-beam types that are frequently utilized in construction are examined in this article, with an emphasis on their technical characteristics, including load-bearing capacity, span capabilities, and suitability for different roofing applications. Readers can choose the best solution for guaranteeing structural integrity and efficiency in roofing projects by learning the distinctive characteristics of various I-beam types."

Corrugated beams: excellent savings

Despite the corrugations’ intriguing appearance, this design was first applied in Russia in the 1930s. Next, a comparable material was applied to wooden buildings. These days, the nation’s metallurgical plants boil these beams.

This kind of beam is currently a light structure made of welded profiled sheet attached to steel shelves. Furthermore, the profile is a cold-rolled one, and the shelves themselves are from hot rental.

View examples of these beams here:

If we use appropriate language, the concept of corrugating walls for these beams came to save money by lowering the amount of metal used in building. Of course, a corrugated wall could be only 1.5–1.8 mm thinner than a typical metal wall. She has transverse ribs already.

Which also causes the beam’s own steeper rigidity to increase! and thus enables you to eliminate the primary flaw, which is characteristic. Here, all tangent stresses are uniformly distributed along the height of the walls, and the voltage only grows in the belts before dropping to nearly zero.

It is possible for the corrugation to be triangular or wavy (the latter being thought to be more technological). A beam with horizontal corrugations instead of vertical ones is even stronger.

Overall, the corrugations are angled between 45 and 50 degrees with respect to the upper belt, and the wave height to length ratio is calculated from 1/5 to 1/20.

In comparison to traditional double-bearing hot beams, corrugated hollow beams are 20–40% more cost-effective. Not only are these beams lighter, but their profiling also provides increased stiffness during rotation. As a result, fewer special lifting devices, such as extra corners and connections, are needed during the installation of these beams. This makes the installation process much simpler.

Corpushes work well as bearing bases in high-rise structures with spans up to 24 meters and as roofing grunts with a span of 9 meters.

The manufacturing of these designs is highly labor-intensive, which is their only real drawback. However, the drawback is that these beams have shorter weld lengths, use less metal, and lack stiffness ribs.

Perforated beams: enlarged bearing capacity

Something like the cost has a direct impact on the final cost of any product. In the early 20th century, engineers actively created and experimented with bending elements in building materials in order to save money. They therefore concluded that, rather than using rally with solid walls, the design of beams with a perforated wall is more appropriate.

The section material is redistributed closer to the shelves, where the normal voltage (as that term is used) is higher, as a result of the beam’s increased height and holes in it. For this reason, an increase in the cross section’s height causes its resistance to increase and its moment of inertia to double.

The internal holes are drilled once in wooden I-beams and frequently with a regular step in steel ones.

I -beams with internal holes

Often, a round or rectangular hole is made in these beams. Additionally, the angles in rectangular holes are cut along the radius to strengthen the beam. Furthermore, rifles cannot be made directly on the beam’s shelves. The actual hole, which typically has a 38 mm diameter, can be made anywhere in the rack with the exception of straight above the support.

When multiple holes are found, specific recommendations are followed. However, there is a 6.5 mm space remaining in the beam rack between the shelf and the lower, upper, and hole borders.

Additionally, they follow these guidelines when creating holes:

  • The length of the rectangular hole should not be more than the height of the opening of the hole more than one and a half times;
  • m with the edges of round holes the distance should not be more than 2.5 times;
  • The distance between the edges of the rectangular holes should not be more than 5 times than the length of the largest rectangular hole;
  • Between the edges of the rectangular and round hole, the distance should be at least 5 times than the length of the largest rectangular hole, or more 5 times than the diameter of the largest round hole:

Testyus -toleous beams

Technically speaking, a multiple statically indiscriminate system is what a perforated I-beam is. If it’s simpler, the design of such a beam is comparable to a sprayed farm and is even determined by its formulas.

The entire secret is that there are conditional hinges and points with zero moments in the middle of the walls and piers where the holes are located. In a beam like this, transverse and longitudinal forces interact. And the precise method relies on the wall-cutting plan.

When the rolling double’s bearing capacity needs to be increased, beams with perforated walls are required. Here, they merely raise the perforated wall’s height, which strengthens the beam’s structural integrity and bearing capacity. Use slants occasionally as well.

A zigzag-shaped broken line is cut using the so-called regular step in the production process using a gas cutting or powerful process to create such a beam. Then, where the wall’s protrusions come into contact, the two halves are joined by welding. Depending on how the strength is calculated, the internal holes and the broken line have quite different shapes.

Consequently, the perforated beam is employed on spans with greater widths because it has a higher rigidity and bearing capacity while weighing the same as the rolling profile.

However, even though the amount of steel used in this beam can be reduced by up to 30%, the process of manufacturing it is more costly due to its increased difficulty. However, in actuality, the cross section’s moment of inertia is 1.5–2 times higher due to the height of the through an I-beam being 1.3–1.5 times higher than usual. As a result, the bearing capacity through an I-beam is obtained in 1.3–1.5 times more than the undertainable!

Here’s a fun video clock that explains how forces are actually distributed inside steel beams and why extra material isn’t needed at all, in case you’re interested:

Simultaneously, a beam with the same bearing capacity that is made of bistal (different types of steel) will weigh 34–39% less and cost 16–20% less than a continuous hot-rolled or low-carbon steel beam. Such a heltar is, to put it briefly, even more portable, made at the factory with highly automated machinery, and compact.

Accordingly, internal cuts exhibit both symmetry and asymmetry with respect to the vertical axis. The beam is connected from two halves of different doubles to create a symmetrical cut.

There are, as it turns out, two kinds of beams: ones with and ones without inserts on the supports. However, only one kind of beam—one with an insert on one end and one without—is created when an asymmetric crus is used.

Perforated double barrels are occasionally created using the blanks of various losers. However, a half-stronger double carrier made of stronger steel must be installed in the compressed zone. Consequently, attain the walls of compressed belts’ stability. The simple fact that the wall has holes in it evenly distributes normal stresses throughout the beam’s height.

With a certain increase in their upper wall, the double-costs become so strong that they can be actively utilized as crane beams.

To sum up, I-beams are unique in the construction industry due to their efficiency and adaptability. They are made in different varieties, each to fulfill particular structural requirements. Because of their straight web and wide flanges, wide-flange beams are perfect for heavy-duty applications like skyscrapers and bridges because they can support a lot of weight.

On the other hand, S-beams, which are distinguished by their tapered flanges, offer a lighter substitute that is appropriate for smaller-scale projects where weight and cost effectiveness are crucial considerations. Their design makes connections simpler and lowers the structure’s overall weight without sacrificing strength.

In projects where resistance to bending and deflection is needed, H-beams—also called W-beams—perform better. Their thicker webs and wider flanges evenly distribute weight, which makes them perfect for horizontal load-bearing applications such as floor and roof beams.

Finally, the use of composite beams, which combine the advantages of concrete and steel, improves load-bearing capacity and fire resistance. These cutting-edge beams are becoming more and more common in contemporary building because they provide environmentally friendly options without sacrificing structural integrity.

Video on the topic

Steico I -beams, basic characteristics

Wooden I -beams. Calculation, production and delivery of wooden integrity beams Intercity

Few people know the pros and cons of wooden I -beams, and their use!

Reliable as a concrete overlap! / What is the secret of the success of wooden I -beams?

What do you think, which element is the most important for a reliable and durable roof?
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Gleb Zuev

Exterior designer, author of books about roofing materials. I will help you make your roof not only reliable, but also beautiful.

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