Types of anti -aircraft lights and requirements for their design and installation

Welcome to "All about the Roof," where we explore the fundamentals of roofing solutions and technology. This article delves into the important subject of anti-aircraft lights, emphasizing the various kinds of these lights and the specifications for their installation and design.

For buildings to be safe and functional—especially those in high-traffic or sensitive areas—anti-aircraft lights are essential. These lights have two functions: they direct aircraft safely around structures and alert them to possible obstacles. Strict guidelines control the layout and positioning of these lights to guarantee efficient operation without jeopardizing airspace safety.

A few fundamental categories become apparent when examining the various kinds of anti-aircraft lights. Among these are obstruction lights, which are usually white or red lights installed atop tall buildings to clearly indicate their presence. For towers, tall buildings, and other structures that could endanger low-flying aircraft, these lights are essential.

In addition, there are high-intensity and medium-intensity lights, each intended for a particular use. High-intensity lights are only used for structures that need to be seen as far away as possible or in locations with complicated airspace regulations. Medium-intensity lights improve visibility in areas with moderate obstructions.

Strict guidelines must be followed in the design and installation of anti-aircraft lights to guarantee their efficacy. In order to comply with aviation safety regulations, elements like color, brightness, and placement height are carefully controlled. In order to ensure proper lighting installation, monitoring systems that notify maintenance teams of any malfunctions must be used in addition to precisely spacing out the lights to ensure continuous operation.

In conclusion, maintaining a safe airspace around buildings and structures requires an understanding of the various types of anti-aircraft lights and their design requirements. By following established protocols and utilizing suitable technology, we can guarantee the security of air traffic as well as ground personnel.

The purpose of the anti -aircraft lantern

The anti-aircraft lantern is a design that consists of one or more light-transmitting elements mounted on a support at a specific height.

To put it simply, this is a roof-mounted window. This component serves a number of purposes:

  • natural light (main purpose);
  • removal of contaminated air (exhaust ventilation) or, conversely, ventilation (in summer);
  • Smoke removal.

Understanding the various kinds of anti-fall protection lights and their unique installation and design specifications is essential when it comes to rooftop safety. Every choice, from sturdy barrier systems to motion-sensing LED lights, has a specific function in improving rooftop visibility and safety procedures. The important factors for choosing and using these lights are examined in this article, which guarantees thorough coverage of safety regulations and useful advice for efficient rooftop management."

Advantages and disadvantages

It is evident that only a small portion of the space close to the exterior wall is truly visible through the windows set into the walls. However, they can also have a northern orientation, be obstructed by trees, or be close to buildings, all of which drastically lower their ability to receive natural light. Anti-aircraft lights are significantly more effective since they

  1. Are arranged throughout the area of ​​the room.
  2. Provide maximum illumination regardless of orientation on the cardinal points and time.
  3. Can not be blocked in principle. The only exception is snow, but the design of the lantern provides the blowing of flakes even with a weak wind. If the snow cover is nevertheless formed, it can easily be melted with a heat gun.

Two advantages result from the room being adequately lit by natural light:

  1. The energy consumption of artificial lighting is reduced, which means that the means are saved.
  2. The people in the room are less tired of artificial lighting, which, unlike natural, always negatively affects the eyes. This positively affects, firstly, to their health, and secondly, on labor productivity.

The warm, well-developed air and hot smoke are rushing there due to convection, even though the lights are at the very top. As a result, the power of ventilation and smoke extraction systems can be greatly decreased, and in certain situations, they can be completely eliminated.

After installing the flashlight, you should also be ready for the following unfavorable situations:

  1. A weak place appears on the roof: a light transmitting coating can be broken in a large hail or heavy object that fell during a hurricane. True, at the present stage, sufficiently strong materials are used that can withstand such loads (armored glass, etc.).
  2. Heat loss through the roof increases: even the most energy -saving types of transparent materials still have much greater thermal conductivity than the thick layer of mineral wool or foam, which would be at the site of the lantern in its absence.
  3. For a high -quality and strong lantern, you will have to pay a significant amount.

Types of anti -aircraft lights

Lanterns can be categorized using a variety of indicators.

The possibility of opening the sash

Based on this, the lanterns are separated into:

  1. Deaf. It is impossible to open such a lantern, so it can perform only one function – serve as a source of natural light.
  2. Opening. As the name is clear, the sash can be opened, thereby providing ventilation or smoke removal.

The sash is movable.

  • manually: using a long bar connected to it;
  • using an electric or pneumatic drive.

With the help of sensors, the opening of modern drive-equipped lanterns is automatically closed when precipitation appears and opens when smoke or a high temperature is detected in the space.

There are battery-operated automatically opening lanterns available that don’t rely on the mains to work.

Lanter"s shape in plan

The plan’s form could be:

  • round;
  • rectangular;
  • polygonal.

Material of a light transmitting element

Ordinary, triplex, and other types of glass as well as transparent polymers such as organic glass, polycarbonate, polyester, and various PVC varieties that transmit light are utilized.

In the design section, we will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the most popular materials.

The shape of the light transmitting element

The options listed below are utilized:

  • flat element;
  • gable;
  • in the form of a pyramid;
  • curved: in the form of an arch or dome.

Polymers are used primarily to create curvilinear elements. Here, the plastic becomes significantly more durable because it becomes a pre-stressed structure.

Less vulnerable is the pyramidal structure whose faces are inclined at a wide angle.

Fire resistance

The following applications are possible for anti-aircraft lights, whose light-transmitting components are composed of plexiglass, fiberglass, and other polymeric materials:

  • in the buildings of the I and II degrees of fire resistance;
  • In the premises of categories G and D, if the coverage materials used are the NG, G1, G2 groups.

Fire-resistant (fire) lamps are made of glass that is resistant to fire. The normalized limit of the roof’s fire resistance must be followed when selecting such a product. Gyms, shopping malls, swimming pools, and production workshops all have fierce anti-aircraft lights installed.

Loss normalizes the fire resistance limit:

  • bearing capacity R;
  • integrity E;
  • Thermal insulating ability I.

Lights with fire resistance ratings of 30, 45, and 60 minutes are produced. These numbers indicate the length of time the structure will cease to function as a fire barrier according to the design.

Constructive performance

  1. Pointed. In size resemble a regular window, designed to light a small zone.
  2. Ribbon. Have a large length and are installed along almost the entire roof. They are used in large buildings, such as hangars, storage facilities, workshops of industrial enterprises, retail pavilions.

Frame material and circulation circuit

These components are able to be created:

  • from steel profiles;
  • Of aluminum profiles is a more preferred option, since aluminum has corrosion stability and weighs very little;
  • wooden bars (used in very rare cases).

The presence of a light conductive mine

These mine-equipped lanterns are mounted in rooms with suspended or bearing ceilings. Mine is a box that extends through the ceiling and has a mirror coating on the inside.

Video: anti -aircraft lantern from double -glazed windows

The design of the anti -aircraft lantern

The following example will take the anti-aircraft lamp device into consideration:

The model includes the following components as a light-transmitting element: a double-glazed window.

  1. Double -glazed window.
  2. Cup or support circuit.
  3. Pinch.
  4. Rubber sealing.
  5. Bolt.
  6. Steel safety grid (in case the glass breaks).
  7. Seal.
  8. The element is clamping.
  9. The element is stubborn.
  10. Mastic for sealing.
  11. Screw.
  12. Apron: prevents water from entering the joint between a glass and roofing.
  13. Waterproofing roll material.
  14. Heat insulator.
  15. Vapor barrier film.

There is an additional opening mechanism on the opening lanterns.

Brands that carry dependable and practical anti-aircraft lights include:


Renowned Danish company whose anti-aircraft lights are considered to be among the best. It can be stated that the manufacturer primarily focuses on creating architectural elements for individual homes; lanterns intended for workshops or trade shows make up a very small portion of the collection.

Velux products are characterized by the following features:

  • compliance with the Russian climate;
  • The glass is insulated with polystyrene foam;
  • The frame is made of PVC profiles;
  • The transmitting element is made of triplex or plexiglass (can be ordered in matte version);
  • Optionally installed a curtain-pliss;
  • The flashlight is made in a futuristic design and resembles a UFO plate.

Another feature that sets these lanterns apart is their price:

  • A dull model in size 60×60 cm costs 15 thousand. rub., Opening – 45 thousand. rub.;
  • The same size 1×1 m – 20.6 thousand. rub. and 51.3 thousand. rub.;
  • The largest model in size of 1.2×1.2 m costs 24.6 thousand. rub. (in a dull performance) and 56 thousand. rub. (opening version).

The most affordable curtain-pliss is nine thousand rubles.


Another enormous player in the glazing sector, this one from Italy. This company was involved in the production of transparent roofs for prominent buildings in Moscow and other cities, including the Molodezhnaya Hotel, Domodedovo Aerothel, and Krasnaya Presnya.

This manufacturer makes anti-aircraft spot lights as well as tape lights. They have the option of being fitted with photocells, or solar panels, which guarantee the opening electric drive operates on its own. Sensors are commonly used to determine the signal that triggers the automatic opening or closing of a flashlight based on the outside weather or the presence of smoke indoors.

The light-transmitting element in spotlights ranges in size from 45×45 cm to 2×2 m and is composed of either polycarbonate or polymethyl methacrylate.

In this field, CAODURO also develops cutting-edge technologies. Without the need for supporting profiles, the engineers were able to construct an 8 m-diameter dome entirely composed of transparent material (self-awareness structure). Additionally, a design of this kind can be two layers or single layers ("insulated" option).


The German manufacturer was also frequently cited at well-known Russian public buildings, such as the MLP Technopark, the Lexisrolph Pavilion, the Astrophysika NPO, and others.

One of the Lamilux lanterns’ "highlights" is its lightning-fast installation capability, which can be attributed to two factors:

  • A special “fast” attachment system consisting of mounting planks and flanges has been developed;
  • The design of the flashlight allows you to deliver to the place in the already assembled form.

The whole range of roofing glazing tasks is covered by the product range. There are the following varieties of lanterns available:

Anti-aircraft lights are included in the first group:

  • convex – series F100 and F100 Glass (double glazing);
  • flat – series Fe;
  • Pyramidal – series FP;
  • gable – series RW.

Such a lantern’s fiberglass glass can be round or rectangular in shape.

Ribbon lanterns fall into two categories:

  • arched – type B;
  • gable – type C.

Models may come with various kinds of electric drives, sensors, and smoke extraction systems installed.

The manufacturer offers PR 60 and PR 60 Energysave systems (the "insulated" option) with steel profiles for glazing the entire roof. Solar panel installation and precious metal spraying are additional services that can be ordered.

Prices are determined uniquely for every individual case. The F100 series lantern typically costs between 12 and 24 thousand rubles.


Polish producer of inexpensive anti-aircraft lights. Although there are no technical highlights, the quality is still quite good. There are models that open manually and others that have an electrical or pneumatic drive (for objects that are more explosive).

Drives do not have an installed injection system for natural smoke removal, but they can be connected to a fire alarm.


The factory, which produces only Russian goods, is situated in Tula. produces tape lanterns with arches and gables that are up to 6 meters wide and dotted with various sizes. A control system from the Italian company Aprimatic is installed in models that have automatic opening.

Costs: A 1×1 m lantern costs 20–21 thousand rubles, while a 1.5×1.5 m lantern costs 26–27 thousand rubles.

Schuco ("Shuko")

The well-known Austrian window profile manufacturer has effectively mastered the specialty of roofing glazing. The selection of products is fairly extensive: lights can be produced in flat, gable, pyramidal, or domed shapes; profiles can be made of steel or aluminum. You can use triplex, stained glass, tinted glass, and other materials as a filler.

Numerous businesses that have been operating successfully in Russia for a long time have Schuco as a partner. One can mention "Deutsche Fasad" and "Continent groups" as examples. When arranging glass roofs in the shape of an Egyptian pyramid or a Romanesque dome (Mediterranean style), Shuko profiles are frequently utilized. The demand is due to both their accessibility and dependability; in certain projects, the cost of a roof of this type was as low as 7.5 thousand rubles per square meter.


Two episodes of deaf tape lanterns—Premium Zenit Pro and Standard Zenit ST—are made under this brand. The finest roofing glazing traditions are followed when creating designs:

  • Aluminum profiles are equipped with stiffness ribs, due to which they easily resist increased loads;
  • There is protection against freezing (there are no cold bridges in the design on which moisture could be condensed);
  • used a triple barrier against leaks;
  • The transmitting element may have an amplification designed for use in a particularly harsh climate.

For five years, the manufacturer guarantees the products.


This company’s primary business is manufacturing ventilated facade devices. However, orders for roofing glazing are also fulfilled, and the completed work is guaranteed.

Technical documentation provided by Rosstroy attests to the high caliber of qualifications held by all specialists engaged in construction work.

All projects are carried out solely with the finest materials that have undergone the necessary certification procedures in Russia.

With the company’s state-of-the-art lifting and transport equipment, you can solve complex problems quickly.

McR Prolyight

Mercor is the brand’s owner. There is a good selection of anti-aircraft lights available from this manufacturer. Numerous options are offered, focusing on both flat and pitched roofs, with varying opening sizes and glass heights.

The business is being considered for the production of lamps in non-standard sizes for customized orders. Additionally, the heat insulator on a glass can have a different thickness; the default value is 20 mm.

The transmitting element’s substance can be used for:

  • Polycarbonate is cellular, the thickness varies within 10 – 25 mm, there are versions with various transparency and heat resistance;
  • acrylic, from which domes are made with the number of layers from 1 to 3;
  • cast polycarbonate.

The glass may be spherical, angled, or straight.

Indu Light

This company manufactures anti-aircraft lamps, but it also serves as the exclusive importer of Eternit Flachdach, another renowned manufacturer. Additionally, she works closely with Rodeca, a company that produces polycarbonate transmitting building structures.

Design of anti -aircraft lights and requirements for them

The specifications listed in the document MDS 31-8.2002, "Recommendations for the design and arrangement of lamps for natural lighting of the premises," should serve as your guide when creating lamp designs. There have also been developed a number of documents that specify the process for the actual features of the product. GOST R 54850–211, "Mansard and anti-aircraft lights windows," is one example. Techniques for figuring out heat transfer resistance.

The size of the anti-aircraft light should be considered in light of SNiP 2.04.05–91*At "Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning" if it is intended to be used for smoke removal.

Documents such as GOST 111–2001 (sheet glass), GOST 24866–99 (one- and two-chamber glue glass packets), GOST 22160–76 (2-layer organic glass dome), and technical conditions (cellular polycarbonate, wavy sheets of transparent PVC, etc.) specify requirements for light transmitting materials.

The selection of the light-transmitting material is the most crucial step in the design process. In terms of technical characteristics, polymers surpass traditional glass nowadays. Make your own judgment:

  1. The transparen transparence coefficient of the most transparent types of silicate glass (leaf and hardened construction) is 0.85 – 0.87, while in organic glass the same indicator is 0.9, in polycarbonate and PVC – 0.85 for 0.85. Other types of mineral glass, such as protective multi -layer or energy -saving, have an even lower transparency indicator – from 0.6 to 0.8.
  2. Mineral glass weighs more plastic: its specific weight is 2500 kg/cube. m, while the polymers have only 1200 – 1400 kg/cube. m.
  3. The thermal conductivity of the mineral glass is 0.76 W/m*C, in the form of a vacuum double -glazed window – 0.5 W/m*C*. For polymers, this indicator is only 0.16 – 0.2 W/m*from.
  4. Polymers are plastic and mineral glass is fragile. When impact, ordinary glass scatters into several heavy sharp fragments, which is why it has to be installed by a protective grid. The plastic dome will only crack, and in many cases it will remain intact, tearing the blow.

However, the glass offers significant benefits:

  1. It is non -combustible and has a high melting point, in which plastic is very inferior to it: organic glass has a combustibility class G3 or G4, polycarbonate and PVC – G2 and G3. The melting temperature of polymers is also relatively low.
  2. The glass changes much less in size when temperature changes: its linear expansion coefficient is only 8.5 1/s, while in plastic this indicator is 60 – 80 1/s.
  3. The most important thing is the glass much firmly than plastic, so it does not abrasion dust and sand. Polymers, because of abrasive exposure, can very quickly scratch and lose a significant part of the transparency.

If it is chosen to use glass as a transparent element, the lamp’s design must guarantee that it will be supported all the way around.

The following are the fundamental specifications listed in MDS 31-8.2002:

  1. The glass should have a height of at least 30 cm – then the lantern will not be closed with snow accumulated on the roof.
  2. The minimum angle of inclination of light transmitting elements relative to the horizontal plane is 12 degrees.
  3. The glass can be made with inclined walls, but at the same time they can deviate from the vertical no more than 30 degrees.

The following materials can be used to make the lantern’s glass:

  • thin -leaf steel;
  • cold -bent steel profiles;
  • aluminum sheets and profiles;
  • fiberglass;
  • Asbestos -cement sheets.

Steel or aluminum profiles that serve as the frame or foundation for the transmitting canvas. With the aid of stampers, or graduations, which are secured to the frame with self-tapping screws, the canvas is positioned within the frame.

The following specifications also need to be considered by the designer:

  1. The fastening and sealing of the canvas should be designed so that it is able to freely expand when temperature changes.
  2. It is necessary to provide insulation of the glass and protect it from corrosion. The most effective heaters are hard and semi -burning slabs from mineral wool with a density of up to 250 kg/cube. m (the material is non-combustible) and polystyrene plates of the psb-s brand with the presence of anti-piren additives (grief-G1). The material is glued with a hot mastic with heat resistance up to 100 C.
  3. The transmitting element is installed in the frame on a polymer profiled seal. The same seals are installed between individual fragments of the canvas, if it is a prefabricated. If necessary, the cracks are additionally sealed with foamed polymers (mounting foam) and silicone sealant for external work.
  4. It is necessary to provide protection for all polymer seals from direct exposure to sunlight (ultraviolets destroys these materials) using a apron or straps.
  5. The material for the apron is usually galvanized steel with a thickness of 0.5 to 0.7 mm.
  6. If the flashlight is equipped with a light conductive shaft (for rooms with suspended ceilings), then the walls of this mine and the glass from the inside should be painted or lined with material with a reflection coefficient of at least 0.85.
  7. A protective grid under filling out of mineral glass should be made of galvanized wire with a diameter of 2 mm and have a cell size of 50×50 mm. The grid is welded into a frame of reinforcement or bent corner, which is suspended on hooks welded inside a glass. If a protective multi -layer glass or pasted with a polymer film is installed in glazing from the room, you do not need to install the mesh.

It is permissible to install a light-transmitting aperture on unscarried slate or corrugated board roofs by swapping out a sheet or a section with a clear PVC sheet with the same profile. PVC list is fastened in the same manner as other materials: bolts or self-tapping screws with sealing washers are inserted into the wave crests.

Lanterns featuring a transmitting element made of material classified as G3 or G4 combustibility have a restricted range of use:

  • The building should have a degree of fire resistance I, II or III and the class of fire hazard C0;
  • The premises over which the flashlight is installed must have a category in fire hazard and explosiveness B4, g or D;
  • The roof should be covered with non -combustible material or belonging to the G1 combustibility group, or roofing material with filling with gravel or large stone crumbs;
  • The total area of ​​the lanterns should not exceed 15% of the roof area.

The lantern’s maximum permitted area is:

  • with specific gravity of transparent filling up to 10 kg/sq. M: 18 kV. m;
  • with specific gravity from 10 to 20 kg/sq. M: 12 kV. m.

The bare minimum of light-permissible distance between the lanterns is established for fire safety reasons:

  • with the area of ​​the 1st lantern from 6 to 18 square meters. m: 6 m;
  • with an area of ​​up to 6 kV. M: 3 m.

Additionally, in MDS 31–8.2002 There are formulas provided in section 3.5 to determine the necessary resistance to the air permissive and the required heat transfer resistance, which ensures that moisture does not condense on the interior surfaces of the lantern under these climatic conditions.

In order to provide effective safety measures for structures, selecting the appropriate anti-aircraft lights requires taking into account a number of factors. In particular, when there are tall buildings, construction cranes, or other elevated structures nearby, these lights are essential for alerting aircraft to possible obstructions. They usually come in two primary varieties: flashing lights and steady-burning lights.

Constant-beam lights, like towers and tall buildings, are ideal for structures that pose a continuous risk to air traffic because they emit a steady signal. Usually red in color, these lights are meant to be seen from every angle. Flashing lights, on the other hand, produce brief bursts of light and are frequently used on shorter obstacles or in the daytime when different visibility conditions apply.

Aviation authorities have strict regulations that must be followed in the design and installation of anti-aircraft lights. These rules guarantee that the lights are positioned strategically for maximum efficacy and that they adhere to visibility standards. Careful consideration is given to variables like light intensity, beam spread, and placement height in order to reduce the chance of collisions and maximize visibility to approaching aircraft.

In addition, professional installation of anti-aircraft lights is necessary to guarantee their consistent performance in a range of weather and environmental circumstances. Maintaining the lights’ functionality and compliance with safety regulations over time also requires proper maintenance. The integrity of the lighting system is continuously maintained by routine inspections and adherence to manufacturer guidelines, protecting both air traffic and structures.

Video on the topic

How to choose an anti -aircraft flashlight for industrial buildings

Glazing of an anti -aircraft lantern in the industrial building P 8, sealing

How to choose a anti -aircraft lantern for industrial and warehouse buildings

Installation of the Velux anti -aircraft lantern

Recommendations for the design and device of anti -aircraft lights (smoke hatches)

Webinar "anti -aircraft lights – what you need to know to ensure reliable installation"

Installation of an anti -aircraft lantern in the KP "strife"

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Gleb Zuev

Exterior designer, author of books about roofing materials. I will help you make your roof not only reliable, but also beautiful.

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