Build the roof of the house with our own hands step by step

If you approach the task with careful planning and attention to detail, building your own roof can be a rewarding and affordable endeavor. Knowing the exact steps involved in building a strong, weather-resistant structure is essential, whether you’re building a new home or replacing an old roof.

It’s important to familiarize yourself with the various kinds of roof designs and materials available before you start. Every design, including shed and flat roofs, hip and gable roofs, has special benefits based on your climate, taste in architecture, and other factors. Likewise, the durability and appearance of your roof will depend on the type of roofing material you choose, such as metal panels, clay tiles, or asphalt shingles.

When building a roof, the first step is to carefully plan and measure everything. Start by figuring out how big the roof is in order to estimate how many materials will be needed. Make a thorough plan or blueprint that specifies the size, pitch, and any structural supports that the roof will require. Establishing precise measurements and guaranteeing appropriate alignment will establish a strong basis for the building procedure.

After you’ve completed your design and acquired all required materials, it’s time to get the roof’s framework ready. This involves erecting rafters or trusses in accordance with the specifications on your blueprint. While trusses provide additional structural integrity and can span longer distances without support, rafters provide the fundamental framework that supports the weight and shape of the roof.

Installing the roof decking, also known as sheathing, comes next after the framework is in place. In addition to providing as the foundation for attaching the roofing materials, this layer of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) aids in uniformly distributing the load of the roof across the structure. Maintaining the strength of the roof and preventing moisture penetration require proper decking installation.

After the decking is in place, you can install the chosen roofing components. Whether you choose long-lasting metal panels, conventional asphalt shingles, or environmentally friendly clay tiles, pay close attention to the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer. To guarantee a durable and weather-resistant roof, pay attention to overlapping seams, weatherproofing methods, and ventilation needs.

Lastly, perform a comprehensive inspection to look for any gaps, loose fasteners, or areas that might need more sealing or reinforcement after the roofing materials have been installed. Your roof will last longer if you maintain it properly and have regular inspections. This will shield your house from the weather for many years to come.

Step 1: Planning and Design Start by planning the roof design, considering factors like size, slope, and materials.
Step 2: Obtaining Permits Check local regulations and obtain necessary permits before starting any construction.
Step 3: Preparing the Roof Frame Construct the frame of the roof using sturdy materials like wood or metal, ensuring it is structurally sound.
Step 4: Installing Roof Decking Place the roof decking over the frame, providing a stable base for the roof covering.
Step 5: Applying Roof Underlayment Install a waterproof underlayment to protect against moisture and ensure longevity of the roof.
Step 6: Adding Roof Covering Choose and install the roof covering material, such as shingles, tiles, or metal sheets, ensuring it is properly sealed and secured.
Step 7: Installing Flashing and Trim Apply flashing around edges and valleys, and install trim to give the roof a finished look and enhance weather resistance.
Step 8: Finishing Touches Complete the roof by adding any final details, such as gutters and vents, to ensure functionality and aesthetics.

Instructions for preparation for construction

Step 1. Choosing a project

While striking, the main differences between roof projects are structural rather than designer. The maximum number of technical features of the structure and the climate zone of its location should be considered when selecting a specific project.

Which roof options are available to developers today?

Step 2. The choice of materials

Following the selection of the particular roof design, choices must be made regarding the kind of roofing coatings to be used and the materials to be used in the rafter system’s construction.

Vital. Determining whether the roof is warm enough for living quarters or not is necessary at this point.

System of rafters

The only high-quality materials required for the rafter system are at least second grade.

Variety of Out-to-Cut Board 2.

Grade 1 oblastic lumber

Sensible guidance. You can purchase raw boards instead of dried ones, which are far less expensive, to save money on the rafter system. However, keep in mind that unfinished lumber must be used within 7 to 10 days, during which the roof must be covered and the rafter system installed. Strong mechanical connections will prevent boards from warping while they are loaded, allowing them to dry in their ideal state.

Raw tears in the board

Prices for various types of construction boards

Construction boards

Mauerlat is made from a beam of 100 × 100 mm or boards 50 × 200 mm. Rail legs are made of boards 50 × 150 mm or 50 × 100 mm. The linear dimensions of the rafter legs should take into account the maximum possible static and dynamic efforts. The width of the boards can be changed due to the use of various vertical and angular emphasis. Each rafter system has its own characteristics, the master must have great practical experience in order to correctly solve the problems that arise during the construction. And, of course, a project needs to be ordered for a residential building, an independently erected building is considered illegal and will not be taken into operation. And this means that light and heating cannot be connected to it, they do not prescribe in such a room, it cannot be given and bequeathed. The project, among others, has working drawings of the rafter system, it is necessary to accurately comply with the recommendations of engineers.

The rafter system’s design

The kind of crate required depends on the type of roofing; any will do for hard roofing materials, but continuous roofing is required for soft roofing. For solid, sheets of plywood or OSP with a minimum thickness of one centimeter must be ready; however, this can be adjusted based on the rafter legs’ step.

Prices for OSB (focusing stoves)

OSB (focusing stoves)

Cut-ended rails can be used to create a continuous crate, but this is not the best option because it will take a long time and be very expensive. The crate is constructed from non-cut boards or rails under solid roofing materials. Inappropriate wood needs to be stunned.

Materials for roofing

The least expensive options for residential buildings are metal or bitumen tiles.

Roller coatings and profiled sheets are applied less frequently.

Seldom does a piece of tile, artificial or natural.

Private home owners frequently select the French roof ondulin. You don’t need to rent special cars to transport it because the roof can fit in the back seat of your car. Mounting ondulin is as simple as assembling IKEA furniture. A layman can handle it too. On roofers, you can save as much as 60,000 rubles. Plus extra. Up to 20 years of leak protection warranty (if the ondulin is installed in accordance with the instructions).

Ondulin is a completely silent roof; it won’t make noise in the room when it rains or hails. Nevertheless, ondulin essentially doesn’t react to sunlight, condenses, or move forward. The French roof doesn’t rust because it is made entirely of metal. Ondulin doesn’t need special maintenance, can withstand random fires, and can look good for decades. Ondulin has grown stronger and more resilient to sunburn in recent years. Following the installation instructions for ondulin ensures that it will not only be protected against leaks but also maintain its normal appearance.

The roof that is easiest to install and maintain overall. Apart from traditional wavy sheets, there’s a new line of products called Ondulin and Ondubil tiles. Although this roof looks a lot like tiles, all of the Ondulin varieties are more affordable, easier to install, and deliver.

Private home owners frequently select the ondulin roof. Even a novice can install it on the roof and avoid paying tens of thousands of rubles to roofers. Installation is as easy as picking up some IKEA furniture. You can bring ondulin from a store in your own personal vehicle without having to pay for a cargo delivery service.

Since the roof is completely silent, hail or rain will not disturb the quietness of the house. Nevertheless, ondulin essentially doesn’t react to sunlight, condenses, or move forward. In fact, the manufacturer offers a 20-year warranty against leaks (provided the roof is installed precisely in accordance with the instructions). Since Ondulin is made entirely of metal, the roof never rusts. 1 m2 of Ondulina can support a load of one ton; this is equivalent to a 2.5 m snow column on the roof. Ondulin doesn’t need special maintenance, is resistant to fire, and keeps its attractive appearance for a long time.

Ondulin maintains a presentable appearance for a long time.

The kind of materials has a major impact on the rafter system. You must consider the weight and features of attaching roofing coatings at the design stage.

Prices for various types of roofing materials

Roofing materials


Warm roofs are only installed in attics where a residential attic is intended to occupy the space. Foam and mineral wool are the two types of insulation that are currently in use.

Polystyrene foam insulationon the roof using mineral wool insulation

The factory width of insulation should be taken into consideration when measuring the distance between rafter legs. This will speed up work and minimize waste.

The rafter legs’ step

Insulation weighs very little, so it can be disregarded when designing the rafter system. However, bear in mind that the house’s climate zone will affect the thickness of the insulation and, in turn, the width of the rafter boards.

Sensible guidance. The insulation thickness should be at least 10 cm in all climate zones; for the middle strip, this requirement rises to 15 cm. Heat-saving effectiveness drastically declines if the insulation layer is thinner than the suggested levels.

Extra roofing materials

If the roof is warm, steam and hydraulic protection should be installed, and the counterparty should be arranged to allow for the subcutaneous space’s natural ventilation. Despite the vast diversity of materials, they are generally quite similar to one another. The operational characteristics are more impacted by styling technology observance than by roofing membrane physical indicators. It is possible to use extremely inexpensive materials in a way that complies with all building codes and specifications. Conversely, the most cutting-edge, contemporary material can be applied to such an extent that it has no beneficial effects aside from harm.

Rooftop hydroparoisolation

Finally, special elements and a drainage system for avoiding the smoke and ventilation pipes should be considered when planning the roof’s construction. There are some strokes and snow retainers that require extra fixations on the rafter system. It is far more appropriate to do this at this stage of the building process rather than after replacing the roofing materials. Though additional and unique roof elements can be installed using both methods thanks to modern technologies.

The brick pipe’s passage through the roofof the pipe and the roofadjustment of the pipe on the slate roof

With this, the preparatory phase is complete. You can begin direct roof construction once all the building materials are ready, the type of roof and roofing are chosen, and a rafter system is designed.

Construction of the rafter system

Vital. It is very difficult to correct mistakes made during the rafter system’s construction. It is really uncomfortable that the majority of them will become apparent as soon as the building is in operation. There are instances where replacing the roof with a new structure will cost less money than fixing the rafter system’s shortcomings. And at this point, interior repairs are not necessary because of leaks.

We’ll look at the step-by-step directions for one of the trickiest roofs, a four-scanny, as an example. It won’t be difficult to comprehend the technology used in the construction of this rafter system and to assemble simpler one-sided or gable structures on your own.

Step 1. Take two long boards, with their help it is easier to determine the length of the rafter legs, the angle of inclination of the slopes and the height of the roof. Temporarily fix the boards to the vertical support on the wall of the house. Raise or lower them until you find an acceptable position. If the dimensions of the house allow, then it is better to make the design of the rafter system such that the length of the legs does not exceed 6 m. Such lumber can be bought, there will be no need to increase. Building not only takes a lot of time, but also weakens the structure, requires the installation of additional supports.

Step 2: Apply a belt reinforcement. It not only raises the attic space’s height but also enables the rafter legs’ overhang to be extended and adds more protection for the facade walls against atmospheric precipitation. The belt’s height should be determined by the size of the house, with a minimum width of 30 cm.

How is a belt that reinforces filled?

  1. Drill holes 15–20 cm long in the walls, insert metal rods into them with a diameter of 12-15 mm. Be sure to have a thread at the top. If such elements are difficult to find in implementation, then you can weld the studs with a thread for ordinary construction reinforcement. The distance between the anchors is approximately 1 m.
  2. Install the formwork around the perimeter of the house. To do this, use wiped boards of 20 × 150 mm so that they do not burst the concrete after 1.5–2.0 m fix them with pegs. No one should be afraid that the reinforcing belt will not have a perfectly even width along the entire length, this element closes with the further construction of the roof.

Formwork was installed.

The procedure for armoured carrier filling

Armopias is being flooded

Vital. The reinforcing belt’s corners should not differ in height by more than ± 2 centimeters. Pulling the rope will make it much simpler to align the concrete’s surface when checking.

Concrete needs at least three days to set. Recall that the structure can only be fully loaded after two weeks, at which point he will have gained 50% of his strength. Watering the concrete belt at least twice a day is recommended if the weather is extremely warm and windy. Concrete becomes stronger during the favorable course of chemical reactions rather than drying out, which necessitates moisture constantly.

The formwork is removed once the concrete has frozen.

There are four phases to the conditionally constructed rafter system: the Mauerlat installation, the subconic beam installation, the valm and diagonal rafter installation, and the crate arrangement.

Installation of Mauerlat

After the formwork is disassembled and the concrete of the reinforcing belt has reached a sufficient strength, work can begin. A 200 x 100 mm beam is used for Mauerlat. This is a crucial component of the rafter system because it stops the rafter legs and ensures that point loads are distributed evenly across the facade walls.

Step 1: Place the beam next to the reinforcing belt and precisely mark the anchors’ output locations. Remove the roulette to make it simpler. Flip it over, narrow side down, and place it on the belt. Mark the anchor positions with a pencil. After that, move the tags to the beam’s wide side; holes must be drilled there.

Sensible guidance. If you are unsure about the precision of the measurements, drill anchor holes that are 2-3 mm bigger than the stilettos’ diameter. Although the strength of the Mauerlat attachment won’t be compromised, this will make installation much easier.

Step 2: Drill holes while maintaining as much vertical support as you can and avoiding distortions. An experienced carpenter is required to complete the work. A novice could destroy the beam; you will need to shorten it in order to move all of the holes.

Sensible guidance. Do not use a lot of force when tightening the nut if there are concerns about the concrete’s strength for the reinforcing belt. When the rafter system is being built, they can then be pulled out.

Step 3: Prepare the waterproofing strips for Mauerlat; it is preferable to purchase common, inexpensive roofing materials. There’s no need to roll out the strip because it’s cut off from the roll. Using a grinder equipped with a metal disk, the material is precisely cut.

Step 4: Distribute the water-resistant strips across the belt reinforcement. Create holes much more easily. Place the roofing material over the anchors and carefully trim the waterproofing’s holes beneath the stilettos. You alone must exercise caution; you cannot strike forcefully. If not, there is a chance that the thread’s upper turns will be harmed, and issues may arise when the nuts are twisted. If you’re nervous, wind the nuts first; once they’ve twisted, they will automatically take damaged turns before you lay the roofing material on all the studs.

Laying down sealant

Step 5: Attach the beam to the anchors and use nuts to tighten it. Make sure the large-diameter pucks are placed underneath them. Should Mauerlat be securely fastened to the hairpins, you’ll need to obtain a sledgehammer. This situation suggests that roofers are not sufficiently qualified.

Pine is a better material to make mauerlat from than spruce because it has significantly more resin and is less susceptible to putrefactive diseases. How can one tell a pine tree from other types of coniferous wood? by multiple indicators. The tree first smells strongly of turpentine and resin. Second, pine has big, vibrant knots and a vivid yellow tint. The third is the black spots on pine trees, which are indicative of a high resin content and are acquired through oxidation in the atmosphere. Sprout Belee has less knots, is lighter in weight, and smells strongly of cat poop.

It is best to use long nails or stainless alloys to secure the corners and length of the bars that are connected to half of their length.

Half of a ceremony is related to the bars’ length.

After feeding the studs through the puck, the nuts are tightened.

Installation of a subconic beam

You can use a 50 × 150 mm beam for an upper skating run, vertical racks, and a horizontal support. The lower element needs to be secured with anchors between the waterproofing wood and the ceiling’s concrete slab. Since nails are used to create all fasteners, they ought to be killed indirectly. Metal corners are an option if one so desires. The width of the subconic beam must be subtracted from the house’s length in order to determine its size; the length of the element is the resultant value. To ensure that all four overhangs are equal, the computation is required.

Installation of rafters

This is the most challenging phase of the rafter system’s construction. The system will use spraying, and special cuts are made to stop around the Mauerlat on the rafter legs. This rafter system is more stable than a vague because it presses the walls rather than extending them.

First, install the rafters diagonally. A board measuring 50 by 150 mm is used in their manufacture; if the length is insufficient, materials should be used instead. While it is important to precisely follow current guidelines during the fusion, it is also important to keep in mind that future support installation at the joints will be required; this should be considered when selecting a location for the extension. Verify that the angles of the four elements are the same. It won’t be an issue if the overhang is somewhat different because the parameter can be easily fitted with the filly under the necessary value.

Sensible guidance. It is advised to cut down two timbers to strengthen the diagonal rafters; this will increase the thickness to 100 mm. As a result of the requirement to knock down with a shift, the element’s length increases concurrently.

Step 2: Have standard rafters installed. The site must be cut in places where Mauerlat stops, and the upper end is fixed to the ridge run.

A rafter leg rests on the location

Building perspective

Resting the rafter legs that follow at the location

At an angle, cut each connection into three nails. One nail is driven into the bar’s edge, and two are driven around it.

Every compound fortifies nails.

The construction of a rafter system

Vital. The step of the rafter is 60 cm, which is a width at which the majority of the insulation is present if the roof is insulated. However, the axis of symmetry should be used to determine the dimensions rather than the side planes of the lumber when removing them.

Add more metal corners to the rafters to increase stability. It is much more convenient to use nails instead of screws, and this does not reduce the stability of the structure. The truth is that they don’t pull out; they work for a slice.

Metal corners record intermediate rafters.

Perspective on the relationship


Place the rafters beneath the cord. First, two extremities are mounted, and their placement is closely examined. Pull the rope between them, keeping everything within reasonable bounds, and then install the last few components.

An image showing the roof construction process

Use nails to securely fasten the rafter legs.

Step 3: Loosen the rafter legs’ departure screws beneath the cornice. Using a gasoline saw makes it easier to cut off, so it should be marked with a beaten construction rope.

The house’s four-sloped rafter system

Fixing of supporting metal corner nodes

Sensible guidance. You will need to reinforce the rafter structure if a piece of tile is used to cover the roof. Installing extra runs and resting your legs on them is all that is required to accomplish this simple task.

Installation of the crate

The type of crate is dependent upon the type of roofing, as previously mentioned. However, it is advised to use antiseptics on the crate’s materials in every situation. Since they operate in environments that are challenging for natural ventilation, extra protection against decay is crucial. All wooden elements must be impregnated with fire protection per construction standards and regulations; double-acting medications that guard against both fire and rotting are now available. Criteria needs to be fulfilled. However, in reality, houses that are protected and those that are not burn with equal success.

For metal tiles, use Colelite.

Video – installation of crate for metal tiles

Roof installation

The chosen materials determine the technology. Every situation can benefit from the same advice, which is to cover the house as soon as possible. There is no chance of getting mineral wool wet if the insulation is mounted because this has to be done from the inside of the building. For roofers, wet cotton wool poses a challenge. It will need to be taken out to dry, and a lot of it becomes useless when dismantling, adding a significant amount of time to the overall time needed to build the roof.

Prices for mineral wool


Video – installation of a roof of metal tiles with your own hands

Video – Merciful installation errors

Congratulations for embarking on the thrilling adventure of constructing the roof of your home by hand! By following this detailed guide, you’ve started a worthwhile project that will improve your house while saving money and adding a personal touch. Every stage of roof construction, from planning to execution, necessitates close attention to detail and careful consideration of structural integrity and safety.

It’s critical to recognize the value of a strong foundation. Start by determining whether your walls have the ability to support the weight of the roof structure by evaluating their load-bearing capacity. Next, decide which roofing materials are best for you given your climate, financial situation, and preferred style. Every material, be it metal sheets, tiles, or shingles, has advantages and installation requirements of its own.

The adage "measure twice, cut once" is a cornerstone of carpentry and is especially applicable to building roofs. Precise measurements guarantee that your roof fits correctly and performs as intended. When laying out the rafters, take your time to make sure they are correctly aligned and firmly fastened. The structural core of your roof is made up of this foundational framework, which offers stability and support.

As you move through each step, make sure your safety comes first. When working at heights, wear the proper safety equipment, such as harnesses, gloves, and helmets. Make sure all joints and connections are sturdy and long-lasting by giving them a second look. Recall that a well-constructed roof will shield your house from the elements for many years to come in addition to improving its appearance.

Finally, acknowledge and enjoy the sense of accomplishment that comes from finishing a big project by hand. Building a roof is more than just building a structure; it’s about giving you and your family a secure and cozy place to live. Savor the journey, absorb knowledge from each phase, and be in awe of the artistry that turns a house into a home.

Doing the roof work yourself can be a satisfying and economical endeavor. We dissect every stage, from planning to finishing touches, in our comprehensive guide, making it understandable for any do-it-yourselfer. It’s important to comprehend the fundamentals of structural elements like rafters and sheathing whether you’re thinking about metal or shingle tiles. We’ll go over the equipment you’ll need and safety precautions to take to make sure your project is safe and successful. Come along as we equip you with the know-how and self-assurance to build a durable, fashionable roof that will add value to your house for many years to come.

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Alexandra Fedorova

Journalist, author of articles on construction and repair. I will help you understand the complex issues related to the choice and installation of the roof.

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