Rail system of the frame house

The rail system is essential to the framing of a house because it offers stability and structural support. The horizontal members of this system run the length of the house and act as a base upon which the vertical studs and other structural components are fastened. Essentially, it serves as the skeleton of the house, guaranteeing the strength and durability of the entire construction.

The rail system is usually constructed from strong materials like metal or wood and is intended to support the weight of the house and any pressures placed on it. It ensures that the house stays stable over time by supporting the walls and assisting in the equal distribution of the load across the foundation. The longevity and safety of the structure are guaranteed by the careful planning and construction of this system, which complies with building codes and safety standards.

The versatility of the rail system in a frame house is one of its main benefits. It permits design and construction flexibility, allowing for a range of architectural tastes and styles. Whether designing a single-story home or a multi-story home, builders can modify the location and spacing of the rails to meet the needs of the project. Because of its versatility, the rail system is favored by architects and builders who want a system that is both aesthetically pleasing and functional.

To sum up, the rail system is more than just an essential part of a frame home; it’s evidence of the meticulous design and engineering that go into making a secure and long-lasting living area. It guarantees that homes can endure the test of time while providing the comfort and security that homeowners expect by offering structural integrity and flexibility.

DIY frame house. The roof of the frame house

We will ascertain the appropriate construction stage for you to build the frame house’s roof yourself. We’ll examine how to properly select the rafters for a frame house, what kind of roofing material to use, and how to insulate the roof. A list of the tools required to erect the roof of the frame house will be provided, along with some consideration given to the intricacies of the roof installation.

What to pay attention to before starting the construction of the roof of the frame house

Because the roofing structure is heavy, it should be supported by the house’s finished walls. In our instance, these are ready when the frame’s vertical racks are put in place, secured with constant bonds, linked by the upper strapping breeze, and lined with two OSB sides. The OSB sheathing is positioned in the center of the upper binding. A roof structure can be supported by such a sturdy frame. External and interior decorative wall cladding is typically installed following roof installation. Additionally, wall cladding is completed before the overlook of overhangs (pediment and cornice).

Overhanging pediment. Carnish overhang.

In the event that the roof design calls for pediments, those are typically constructed and covered in OSB sheets prior to roof assembly. As a result, it is best to determine the roof’s slope before building the pediments, as this will determine the pediment’s upper line (more on selecting the roof blade will be discussed a little later). A pediment may be built parallel to the roof, but it must be installed at least after the extreme rafter farms are installed. Securely fasten the farms with braces at the same time.

In addition to the pediments, low walls made from the overhangs will be constructed if the attic floor is below the attic roof; therefore, these walls must also be constructed and lined with OSB prior to the roof assembly.

The main frame of the first floor is connected to the principal elements of the pediment and these low walls using the same section, step, principle, and method.

You must install an upper binding beam at the top of each of the attic floor’s four small walls, including the ones where a pediment is intended to be built. Above this strapping, the pediment keeps building until it reaches the appropriate height. In this instance, the upper binding beam will have the same cross-section as the upper binding beam of the first floor. He will also carry out the role of the Mauerlat by supporting the rafters.

What you need to decide before the construction of the roof

Select a roof configuration.

We examine a 6 x 8 m house in this piece, as we do throughout the entire "DIY Hand Frame House" cycle of articles.

We previously (in earlier articles) chose the cross-sectional components of the frame that are listed below:

The floor beams are 180 x 130 mm with a step of 600 mm, and the upper binding beam measures 100 x 150 mm, connecting the frame’s vertical racks at the top.

To construct the roof, we must determine the number of slopes, the angle of the slope, the roofing material, and the sections and step of the primary roof components (rafters, crate, counterparty). Let’s get more specific about each point.

The more complicated the roof, the as a rule it looks more beautiful. But at the same time, it automatically becomes more expensive. The optimal number of slopes in terms of beauty and cost, in our opinion, are two slopes. One slope looks boring, and 4-slot (honeycomb or valme) will cost more. The attic (holm and semi -wax) roof we will not disassemble in this article either. Let us dwell on a gable roof, which is suitable for both the cold attic and for the attic floor (provided that the walls of the attic floor are at least 1.5 meters, and the slope of the slopes is not more than 45 °). There is only one horse in a gable roof and there are no yendes. Which is also a plus, since Yendov and the horse are the most vulnerable, and therefore the most difficult in the arrangement, places of roofing.

The roof type selection for the frame house

The allowable slope of the slopes is determined by the type of roofing. Since every roofing material has a recommended slope range that must be followed in order for the material to be installed safely. In other words, it won’t crawl and won’t let the snow accumulate longer than it should. D. It is sometimes possible to lay it on a slope that is different from the one suggested in the recommended range, but only if specific modifications are made to the roof design. Examples of these modifications include adding more waterproofing, laying the crate more frequently, replacing the shedding with continuous flooring, and fastening the roof material more frequently. P. I’ll list the acceptable slopes for the most common types of roofing materials:

  • Cement-sand and ceramic tiles-25-60 °;
  • Polymer-sand tiles-20-60 °, a smaller angle is allowed when the crate is strengthened;
  • bitumen tiles – from 12 ° (the maximum slope is not limited);
  • metal tiles – from 20 °, a slope of 15 ° is allowed, subject to sealing the joints of the metal tile;
  • corrugated board – from 10 °;
  • asbestos-cement sheets (slate)-12-60 °;
  • Bitumen wavy sheet (aka Euro -shifer, bitumen slate, ondulin) – from 15 °, a slope of 10 ° is allowed when the crate is strengthened and from 5 ° when replacing the crate with a continuous flooring.

For the purposes of this example, we’ll settle on bitumen slate, which is the most widely used roofing material in low-cost construction. It is lightweight, attractive, and reasonably priced, making it a crucial component of budget construction. Our experience with this material from various manufacturers only allows us to conclude that it fades (burns out) uniformly after a few years. However, there were no complaints other than the color (burnout) with appropriate styling on this material.

A roof is classified as flat if its slope is no more than five degrees; a pitched roof has a slope greater than five degrees. When a pitched roof slope is less than 28 degrees, it is deemed loaded, and the components supporting it must meet stricter specifications. Because of this, rafters with a slope of less than 28 degrees need to be stronger because the amount of snow increases dramatically (snow slides off the roof poorly and mostly stays on the roofing). Additionally, wind loads rise at slopes greater than fifty degrees.

Thus, 35–45° is the ideal slope in terms of loads. the same bias and appears to be most beneficial on the outside. The roof is not too gentle nor too sharp at the same time. We’ll stay on a 45° incline.

So, At the house of 6×8 m, we will have a gable roof with a slope of 45 degrees, covered with bitumen slate. We also accept that under the roof we will have a residential heated attic floor. The walls of the attic floor are raised by 1.1-1.6 m. This height depends on your requirements for comfort. But 1.1 m is a minimum in order to make it convenient to operate a subcutaneous space. With this height of the walls under the ramp in the lowest place, for example, you can place a berth or cabinet. If you have a cold attic, then the roof design will be the same, only it will not be insulated (the floor of the attic will be insulated) and the walls do not need to be lifted by 1.1-1.6 m.

Diagram of the roof of a frame house

We will now choose the roofing plan. Do you require any more runs, puffs, sockets, crossbars, etc.? It will be possible to select the cross-sectional sections of each element and determine the quantity of lumber following the scheme’s final determination.

A roof shaped like the letter "A" is appropriate for a 6 by 8 m home. Rafferts and a crossbar (also known as a puff, a cross member, a jumper, a bow, etc.) make up this structure.

The roof design shaped like the letter "A."

Cross-section of the frame house’s rafters

We will insulate our roof if we choose the option with a residential attic. As a result, when choosing the rafters’ cross section, care must be taken to ensure that the insulation is positioned between them at different heights. Generally speaking, the roof calculation indicates that 100 to 150 mm (and rarely more than 150 mm) of insulation are needed. In terms of height, this insulation should fit in between the rafters.

The estimated insulation thicknesses in pitched roofs for a few major cities are provided below:

109 mm for Sevastopol;

Yekaterinburg: 140 millimeters;

In the event that a computation of up to 100 mm is needed, the rafter section may even measure 100 by 50 mm. Nevertheless, such a small section of the rafters must be calculated for each unique case (whether they can withstand the snow load specifically for your region, what should be their step and t.D.). We perform this computation. Without doing any math, we advise taking a slightly reinsured approach and using rafters with a section of 150×50 mm, even with insulation up to 100 mm thick.

The rafters measure 150×50 to 150×70 mm if the insulation is between 100 and 150 mm. Increasing the smaller side (between 50 and 70 mm) is pointless because the square cannot support the same weight as the rectangle. The section with all of the channels and helters is one illustration of this.

The rafters are 200×70 mm if the insulation is more than 150 mm.

Consider the 150 x 50 mm rafters for our example.

The frame house’s rafters’ overall length

I will then go over one choice for choosing the rafters’ length. In practice, we employ it. It is particularly appropriate if you are unsure about the future roof’s slope because you cannot be certain how a particular angle will appear in practice.

We take two long rails, usually six meters long, and use a nail shaped like the letter "l" to knock them down on one side. Our trial rafter farm will be located here. Without lifting to the location of the future roof, knock down on the ground.

In addition, we set up a trial crossbar, which is a long rail that we will measure the desired length of and fasten to trial rafters at the proper level.

Raise them up to the roof, then place our letter "l" on the upper binding’s beam. We are now attempting to alter the angle as the rafters’ length varies. The ideal slope angle is chosen by us. The length of the rafters as a result can then be measured. The length ought to account for the rafters’ 30- to 55-cm overhang "for" the wall. We receive a rafters sample.

Keep in mind that the overhang shields the windows and house walls from atmospheric precipitation. The overhang standards stipulate that there should be at least 50 cm if an organized drain from the roof (drainage system in the form of gutters and pipes) is not intended to be installed for the first time or will not be installed at all. Even though it is not a good idea to do 50 cm over 50 cm, it looks very nice and will protect your walls better if there is a drainage system.

The only thing, with this selection of the length of the rafters, it must be borne in mind that after installation they will “sit” on Mauerlat 5 cm below. Since the rafters must be cut into the Mauerlat for greater stability of the connection. In each rafter, a triangle with approximate dimensions of 5×5 – 5×6 cm with a section of rafters is 150×50 cm is cut out at the place of support for the Mauerlat. If your cross section is different, then the side of such a triangle will be approximately equal to 1/3 of the height of the rafters. Such a rafter planting does not affect the selection of the angle of the roof slope and the length of the rafters. Just visually after the installation of the rafters will be below approximately 5 cm. Plus, trying on the rafters, you need to mark on the bottom of the rafter the place of support for the rafters on the Mauerlat and conduct a vertical up from it. It will be one of the sides of our triangle. The second can be finished already on the ground, at an angle of 90 degrees by the first.

Mowerlat rafter.

The crossbar’s length is also measured at this point; further details are provided below.

Step of the frame house’s rafters

The step of the rafters depends on their cross section, as well as on the size and slope of the slopes. As you know, there are a lot of options for various combinations of these parameters, so I can not prescribe all the possible options for a step of rafters for different sections, slope and sizes of the slope. In our example, the rafters have a section of 150×50 mm, house 6×8 m, a slope of 45 degrees. And for this option, a suitable step of rafters is 70-80 cm. If you have approximately the same parameters, then a step 70-80 cm will suit you too. If the parameters are different, then ask and we will select a step specifically for your case.

Note: Since the width of a rolling roll is typically precisely 60 cm, it is sometimes recommended for insulated roofs to take a step of the rafters equal to 60 cm, thereby eliminating the need for cutting the insulation. We do not recommend modifying the insulation because doing so will result in more rafters—for example, 18 rafters instead of 12—because you are decreasing the rafters’ step. The roof structure weighs a significant amount. Overloading the foundation and walls. The insulation can be easily cut to the appropriate stepal step with ease.

The analysis of the rafters’ cross section, length, step, and size of the supporting cut (triangle) for supporting the rafters on Mauerlat has already been completed. They also disassembled a sample rafter preparation.

We now apply a sample of the rafters, which are already on the ground, to the bars that will hold the remaining rafters, try them on, outline them, and cut them to the appropriate length. Thus, we start preparing the number of rafters required for the full roof right away.

It should be noted that there should only be one sample, and the first (and only) model should be used for all subsequent rafter measurements. Inaccuracy will build up and become intolerably large if you measure the second rafter on the first, the third on the second, the fourth on the third, etc.D. For instance, with ten rafters, the error will be two centimeters even if each rafter is only 2 mm longer or shorter than the preceding one. T. e. There will be a 2 cm difference in the length of the first and last rafters.

The crossbar should be placed as low as possible, but not lower than the ceiling of the first floor is planned. The lower the crossbar is located, the better it perceives the spacer and if the crossbar is fixed high, it will not fulfill its function. We will select the minimum height of the location of the crossbar for our example. 2.1 m only the height of the entrance doors (if the crossbar is lower, then the doors will not fit). Plus about 10-20 cm (0.1-0.2 m) above the door and about 5 cm (0.05 m) finishing material of the ceiling. Total we get 2.25-2.35 m. This is the minimum distance from Rigel to the top of the final floor at the height of the doors 2.1 m. If you find doors 2.0 m high, then the crossbar can be placed even lower, at an altitude of 2.15-2.25 m from the top of the final floor. It is also important to remember that the smaller the cubature of air in the attic, the less heat it will be necessary to spend it on heating. This can also be attributed to the pluses of low selection of the crossbar.

Naturally, the standards state that residential buildings’ ceilings must be at least 2.5 meters high. However, 2.15-2.35 m is definitely appropriate for sleeping rooms—that is, if your growth permits it:-).

Rigel is taken using a 50 x 150 mm section. i.e. the area where the rafters are. As a result, there is no confusion when placing an order for a tree at a sawmill, and any leftover rafter residue can be turned into a crossbar.

The rafters’ step and Rigel’s step are identical. T.e. In this instance, 70–80 cm.

It offers the roof structure’s upper ventilation gap. Whether the roof is insulated or not, waterproofing needs to be installed, and there are two ventilation gaps with a height difference of 2-4 cm each:

  • lower venturezor – under waterproofing (for weathering condensate, which can accumulate on the inner surface of the waterproofing with increasing humidity in the room). On the lower clearance, you can see in more detail in the commentary;
  • The upper venturezor is over waterproofing (for weathering condensate, which can accumulate on the inner surface of the roofing material).

Furthermore, the regular functioning of the wooden components of the roof is attributed to these two ventilations. Additionally, there’s a good chance that the wooden components will mold, bloom, or cover the fungus if there’s even one missing gap.

The counterparty is responsible for ensuring the upper ventilation gap. The rafters are where it is fastened. 20 x 50 mm cross section (20 is height). Considering that the counterpart is fastened along the rafters (for every rafter), the step is equivalent to the stepal step (70–80 cm in our example).

Get in touch and crate

The roofing material affects the crate’s step and cross-section. It is attached to roof material, bitumen slate in our case. Additionally, it stabilizes rafter farms. The bitumen slate crate’s cross-section measures 40×50 mm, with a step of 35 cm.

The crate’s length is arranged so that an overhang (departure) of 20 to 50 cm is available for extremely long rafters. The overhanging crate is frequently constructed in the same way as the overhanging rafters, which are the outside walls’ rafters that diverge. Thus, the overhang is typically made 50 cm, for instance, if the overhanging rafters are 50 cm. It is more practical to fix the crate by doing the overweight to do a little bit more, then cutting off the excess. You can use an unreasonable board to save as a crate.

Once the primary specifications for each roof element have been determined, you can place an order for a forest. When placing an order, keep in mind that standard length pillars are always more profitable to order—even if they are longer than what you require—and that leftover material will always find a use in the building of frame houses.

You can buy the forest either dried or not. They still say, "We advise taking the unsteady"—wet. The dried forest is typically used for furniture, lining, etc. because it is very costly. P. Additionally, a dried forest now costs a square meter as opposed to a cubic meter. The standard, non-dried forest that can be bought from a sawmill is appropriate for the roof. The most important thing is that the fungus has not affected the tree, as evidenced by its gray exterior. In addition, you have to remove all of the bark from a tree to prevent the bark beetle from starting.

A combination antiseptic treatment is required for all lumber. This can be completed prior to assembly: soak, let dry for a few hours, and then mount right away to prevent the tree from falling. Learn in-depth instructions on how to apply an antiseptic to a tree on your own. Alternatively, mount right away and use maclovor to impregnate the roof already. While this method is undoubtedly simpler, in this instance the internal planes of the wooden elements at the points where they connect to one another will remain unprocessed (it will simply not be obtained there).

After that, I’ll go over a list of the essential tools you’ll need to install a roof. hammer, carbon fierce, roulette, brush-maclovice, fomka, drill, screwdriver, drill, perforator, grinder, electric chubby, water or laser level, nylon thread 50 m, and so on.

Installation of the roof of the frame house

There are several methods for fastening the roof’s primary components. This is a nail compound, with the connection made with steel plates or wooden linings, as well as cuts, etc. These days, there are lots of choices. Using nails to make a connection is the most economical choice.

Next, I’ll give a quick explanation of one low-cost method of joining the major roof components in the main nodes. Naturally, keep in mind that there are other options. You can always find an alternative in any node. This is more of an illustration.

Jail-related issues in the skate

As seen in the figure below, the rafters are conveniently connected in the skate by a method on the paws’ floor. Make easy cuts with a chainsaw. Three to four nails measuring between 100 and 150 mm are used to connect this node to the rafters if the section measures 150 by 50 mm. From the back, bend the nails.

Joining the rafters in the skate technique on the paw’s floor.

Journeying by raft to Mauerlat

Under the Mauerlat, which doubles as the upper binding’s beam, the rafters are pre-cut. fastened in the location where the rafter is thinnest with a 200 mm nail driven from above. There are only two nails—one at an angle from each side. The nail vibrates into the beam after passing through the rafters.

Fastening rigels to rafters

A 50 x 150 mm cross section is fastened directly, without any distance gaskets, to the rafters on one side using 150 mm nails. From the back, bend the nail.

Black self-tapping screws are used to fasten 20×50 mm in close proximity to the rafters on a 35 mm tree, with a step of roughly 50 cm.

Attached to the rafters at the intersection of one 60 mm self-tapping screw is a 40×50 mm piece.

This installment of the "DIY Hand Frame House" cycle will focus on building the roof. We’ll decide when the roof should be completed in the construction process.

The design and erection of the roof of the frame house

The most crucial component of a frame house is its roof, and in order to completely comply with all regulations, precise adherence to the advice and specifications of experts is required during construction. These homes have gained a lot of popularity recently because they require less time to construct. It is possible to build a frame house from scratch, both the structure and the roof.

Frame house roof design

Only the prefabricated house walls can support this roofing design because of its reasonable weight. "Readiness" refers to the vertical racks of the house’s frame that have been installed and secured with capital letters. These racks have chip plates (OSB or OSP) lined on both sides and are connected using the top of the upper binding. These plates should also be sheathed around the middle of the beam in the upper strapping of the walls. A frame of a similar design may be deemed appropriate for roofing purposes.

After the roof is constructed, decorative interior and exterior wall decoration is completed.

You can activate the pedimon and cornice overhang bell once the walls have been trimmed. Should pediments be incorporated into the roof structure, their installation along with the sheathing using chip plates ought to be completed prior to the assembly process.

This process can be done along with the construction of the roof, but not earlier than the rafters of the extreme farms are installed, fixed by slanting. Rail farm – a rigid structure of rafters, struts, racks and other auxiliary elements. If the attic floor is planned under the roof, then together with the pediments, the construction of low walls from the overhangs will also be required. These walls are also installed and lined with OSB until the roof is installed. The rules and method of connecting these walls and the main components of the pediment, their cross -section and step are similar to those that were used to build the frame of the first floor of the house with your own hands. On top of the low walls of the attic floor (on four sides), the beam of the upper strapping is placed. Then pediments are installed to the required height. In this case, the cross -section of the breeze of the upper binding made on the ground floor should be similar. The rafters will subsequently rely on this attic.

Acts preceding the arrangement of the roof

Diagram of the roof of a frame house.

Initially, it is necessary to decide on the configuration of the future roof. It is necessary to correctly calculate the angle of slope, the number of slopes, the choice of roofing material, the cross -section and step of the counterparty, rafters, crate. If the slope indicator exceeds 5 °, such a roof of the house will be considered to be pitched, if less – flat. If the pitched roof has a bias of a smaller 28 °, it will be called loaded, which means that the requirements for its construction will be more strict. In this case, the roof will need an enhanced rafter system, because in winter a mass of snow will be pressed on it, which practically does not have the opportunity to crawl from it. If the slope of the slopes exceeds 50 °, the roof will be worse with the windy attacks. They look much more attractive and much better withstand the load of the roof with a slope angle of 35-45 °.

The frame house’s pitched roof is made up of inclined planes or slopes, most of which have a slope of more than 10%. There are two types of roofs in this category: combined and unra-shallow attic (separate). The supporting components of a non-shallow roof function as the building’s upper floor floors. If the roof has an attic, the attic is located inside, sandwiched between the overlap of the attic and the roof.

Frame homes can be identified by the quantity and kind of slopes on their roofs:

  • single -shoe;
  • gable;
  • four -sided or semi -wire;
  • spire -shaped;
  • four -sided tent;
  • The attic.

Plan of a frame home’s floor plan.

Single-shift roofs are those on frame homes with a single bias. These roofs are a standard feature of city buildings and structures; drains cannot be installed on them, nor can snow be released from them. Sheds, garages, and canopies can all benefit from this kind of roofing. The most common type of roof, gable roofs are utilized in the construction of all buildings and structures.

Four-sided, or semi-wire, roofs are typically found on summer cottages and in rural areas. They have four slopes. Spire-shaped roofs are steep isosceles-scatters that work well for biases, rounded wall buildings, and towers because they combine to form sharp peaks. Four-sided tent roofs are ideal for covering houses with square or polygonal layouts because the tops of the slopes are connected at one point. The roofs of attics are characterized by a fractured structure that makes them appropriate for summer cottages and residential buildings.

How to decide on the number of slopes for the future roof? If you want attractiveness – then it is better to make a complex roof of a frame house with your own hands in several slopes. If you want more modestly, then the gable roof will look pretty pretty and will not entail large costs. If you choose a gable option, it does not matter what will be located under the roof – an attic or attic, the roof is suitable in both cases. The main thing is to observe the height of the walls, at the attic floor, the height of the wall should be at least 1.5 m, and the slope of the slopes should not exceed 45 °. For a gable roof of a frame house, only one horse is needed, yendovs are not required.

Roofing material and insulation, section and length of the rafters

The kind of roofing material determines how big the slope is. For safe styling, a recommended slope range is provided for each material. Sometimes the slope’s magnitude shifts in one direction or the other, smaller or larger. The size of the slope influences the roof’s design in several ways, such as how frequently the crate is installed or a continuous flooring is created in its place, as well as how frequently waterproofing, slate, or other roofing materials are enhanced. The following are the ideal slope values for the different kinds of roofing materials:

The overlap diagram for the wall with a wooden frame.

  • Ondulin – from 15 °, with an enhanced crate – from 10 °, continuous flooring – from 5 °;
  • bitumen tiles – from 12 ° or more, there are no maximum restrictions;
  • cement-sand and ceramic tiles-from 25 to 60 °;
  • Polymer -sand tiles – from 20 to 60 °, with an enhanced crate can be larger;
  • metal tiles – from 20 °, allowed from 15 ° when sealing joints;
  • Profile iron – from 10 °;
  • Standard asbestos -cement slate – from 12 to 60 °.

The most common amount of insulation used in roof construction is between 100 and 150 mm, though occasionally more. The insulation needs to be positioned between the rafters at a good height. The section value can be as high as 100×50 mm if the insulation’s width is not greater than 100 mm. In any event, the step size, other indications, and the rafters’ capacity to support the weight of the snow masses are taken into account when determining the minimum section of rafters. You can use the following example to calculate the length of the rafters:

  • Fixing with a nail 2 rails 6 m long to get the letter “l”;
  • At the required level, attach one long rail to the model of the rafter farm and measure the desired length of the crossbar. This will be a sample of a crossbar;
  • Raise the sample of the rafters onto the roof and rest it on the beam of the upper binding, then choose an acceptable angle of inclination, changing the length and angle of the rafters;
  • The resulting length of the rafters should be measured, given their overhang for the wall by 30-55 cm.

Schematic assembly of the frame house’s roof skate.

As a result, you can obtain a rafters sample. Regarding the overhang, it shields the frame house’s windows and walls from rain and other precipitation. The overhang needs to be at least 50 centimeters long. It is important to keep in mind that the rafters will be 5 cm below the surface when they are installed and land on Mauerlat. Mauerlat’s rafters unavoidably collapsed for the most durable connection. A triangle measuring 5 by 5 or 5 by 6 cm is sawed on the Mauerlat, with a segment of the rafters measuring 150 by 50 cm at the rafters’ point of support.

A step of rafters is the separation between the two rafter legs. Length is determined by slope, slope size, and section. For instance, the following specifications can be added: the rafters’ section will measure 150 by 50 mm and have a 45-degree slope; the rafter legs will be spaced apart by 70 to 80 centimeters when the frame of the house measures 8 by 6 meters. The stepal step will be 60 cm if the insulated roof is planned.

Rigel, counterparty, ventilations, crate

Roof plan for a brown house.

The horizontal element that connects the rafters in roofs is called a crossbar. The crossbar should be located very low, but not lower than the ceiling of the first floor of the frame house. Due to its low location, Rigel perceives the spacer better, if it is highly located, it simply will not be able to fulfill its functions. The counterpart provides the upper venture in the roof structure. Regardless of whether the roof is insulated or the attic is located in it, a pair of ventilation gaps and waterproofing cannot be dispensed with. Ventilations are upper and lower. The upper ventilations disdain condensate, which accumulates on the internal surfaces of the roofing material.

The location of this venturezor is above the waterproofing. Condensate that builds up on the inside of the waterproofing as the indoor humidity rises is removed by the lower venturezor. Furthermore, ventilations offer the best conditions for the roof’s wooden components. Eventually, fungus and mold will cover wooden structures if you don’t install at least one venturezor. Stated differently, the counterpart provides the upper ventilation and is fixed along the rafters. The length of her step is comparable to the rafters’ step, and it is fastened to each rafter.

Any roofing material is attached to the crate, it enhances the stability of rafter farms. Determining the length of the crate, it should be borne in mind that the overhang for extreme rafters should be from 20 to 50 cm. The crateg overhang is left with a similar overhang of the rafters (the distance of the rafters that went beyond the external walls). What will be the overhang of the rafters, this will be the overhang of the crate. For the convenience of the working process, the overhang is lengthened when fixing the crate. Excesses are cut at the end of the work. Unsoluted boards are also quite suitable for the installation of the crate.

Tools and selection of lumber

Buying a low, wet forest is the best option for roof structures. Although a dried analog is significantly more costly, it will dry on a roof or in a moist forest. Before beginning construction, thoroughly clean the wood using a specialized antiseptic to ensure dependability. To prevent the tree from leading, you must wait two hours after impregnation and then begin assembling the structure right away.

Structure of a house built with frame technology.

  • Bulgarian;
  • chain or circular saw;
  • drill;
  • screwdriver;
  • punch;
  • building level;
  • Fomka;
  • electric shirt;
  • roulette;
  • construction pencil;
  • hammer;
  • Screwdriver Set;
  • construction knife;
  • a 90 ° square;
  • Kapron thread, 50 m;
  • Maklovitka brush;
  • clamps and brackets;
  • self -tapping screws and bolts;
  • nails, 200 mm;
  • roofing nails;
  • wood, a trimming board;
  • antiseptic for wood;
  • OSB plates;
  • Bars;
  • lining carpet;
  • Balzate mineral wool (polystyrene foam, glass wool – to choose from);
  • waterproofing (dense plastic film, geotextiles);
  • bitumen glue;
  • silicone sealant;
  • construction tape;
  • flexible tiles;
  • pipe connector (if their presence is assumed);
  • roofing materials.

The sequence of installation actions

Schematic assembly for a frame house’s walls.

The rafters are attached to the reliably fixed Mauerlat, a cutout is made at the lower end of the rafters with which it will rest against Mauerlat. The rafter is attracted to the main beam and is fixed with nails. The edges of the beams attracted to each other (overlap) are fastened with large bolts. For the reliability and strength of the structure, as well as to reduce the spacer force to Mauerlat, the rafter legs are fastened to each other with a crossbar. The ends of the crossbar are placed on the rafters and fixed with bolts. On top of the Mauerlat, a mare is attached to each rafter – a board corresponding to the length of the overhang. The crate is attached to the rafters using nails 200 mm long. The boards that form a horse should fit very tightly to each other from all sides. On each side of the crate, it is necessary to leave two ventilation ducts, each should be a minimum of 5 cm in width. Then the lining layer is laid on the crate, it is mounted along the edges, on the inner yendov, on skates, near the pipes and in those places where water can dry.

The width of the layer should be at least 40 cm. The lining layer is nailed, if the second layer is meant to be laid on top, then it is overlapped, 10 cm over the nails. The overlaps, like the edges of the lining, are secured with bitumen glue. Drip guards are installed along the cornice – these are metal plates that protect the cornice from moisture. They are attached with an overlap of 5 cm and nailed with roofing nails. Similar actions are performed with ridge strips. Flexible tiles are attached to the top with droppers. To prevent wind from blowing under the roof, it would not be superfluous to glue and nail flexible tiles from the end part of the outer rafters of the roof of a frame house.

The roofing materials are then installed. Passage elements, which are nailed around the perimeter and the roof adjusted from above, are needed if pipes and antennas are to be mounted on the roof. Installing a triangular block in the corner of the roof and pipe to cover the lining layer on top and install a special pipe connector is necessary if a stove pipe—which heats up—is anticipated. Silicone sealant needs to be used to seal the cracks.

Bearing cornice, internal insulation

At the very end of the frame house’s roof construction, the cornice is filled. Given the proximity of the gearing box to the wall, the external insulation of the walls should currently be ready, if it isn’t already. The binder is made of wood to prevent extra ventilation. The binder frames are connected at the corners by cutting them off at an angle and fastening them with screws to metal brackets. Next, boards are stuffed along the length of the frame to sheathe the bottom.

Insulation is carried out both from the inside and from above on the crate. Insulation from the inside successfully hides the space between the rafters, and the roof becomes much warmer. Initially, the waterproofing film must be pulled around the entire perimeter, it should tightly cover all parts of the structure. To do this, you need to nail thin wooden planks in the corners over the film, between the crate and rafters. Mineral wool slabs are laid between the rafters and nailed, they should fit tightly to each other and mounted on. The vapor barrier is pulled on top and also nailed. The joints of the waterproofing and vapor barrier film should be overlapped. The joints should be glued with construction tape for greater reliability. At this stage, the construction of the roof of the house with your own hands can be considered complete. If desired, a light crate can be made on top of a vapor barrier film, and then finish, for example, with drywall.

It is quite possible to install the frame house’s roof by hand. Installation of a frame, crate, waterproofing, and roofing material will be aided by construction expertise and accurately computed calculations.

The rafters of the frame house

The shape of the roof determines how the frame house’s rafter system is designed. They additionally consider the local customs, the climate, and the type of coating. Since snow does not fly on slopes with a 45-degree angle, roof frames in snowy regions are steep and straightforward in design. Additionally, the structure is reinforced in windy areas.

The shape of the roof

One can find single-shoe, gable, four-sloping, Valmova, multi-shaped, and broken roofs in low-rise buildings.

The majority of the time, an auxiliary purpose building has a single-sided roof. Two slopes in Dimrakatat come together to form a horse. A pediment is the triangular end of a facade with a gable roof.

The roof has four horns where four slopes meet. If the tent’s roof is where the slopes converge. A foolish variation on a quadruple roof. However, the opposite slopes are the same size, and there is a horse at the top.

A multiplic roof is made up of various planes that cross at various elevations. The hollow corners of intersecting slopes are known as mosses, and the intersection lines of inclined planes are known as ribs. Multiple ribs and m lands are possible in the multi-plot.

The attic’s configuration results in the broken roof; two of the walls are elevated to a height of approximately 1.5 meters (or less), while the other two walls serve as the front-facing facades. The slopes of the attic shield the space designated for the second or third floor room.

Roof structures

The roof’s slope is measured between 5 and 60 degrees. With windows installed, the design is selected with consideration for the span values, roof material, and slopes. Since the roof is calculated at the project stage, it makes more sense to leave this important task in the hands of construction design experts.

Rafferts (rafter legs) support the majority of the weight in low-rise buildings’ attic roofs. Tights, inclined struts, or vertical racks are helpful to them. Layered and hanging rafters are separated based on how they are supported.

The ends of the building walls serve as the basis for hanging. In this instance, the supports ought to be placed no closer than 6.5 meters apart. The rafters are layered, with one side resting on the outer walls and the other on the carrier wall in between. There should be no more than 4.5 meters separating the supports.

The rafters in a frame house rest on the upper wall strapping, so the roof needs to be made by the time it is erected. The stability of the house’s structure is further enhanced by the walls’ amplified construction, which is made of boards or plywood sheathes.

The simplest rafters are most frequently used in single-melted frame homes that are no wider than six meters.

They are gathered from boards and fastened to one another using screws and nails and plank linings that are 25 mm thick. The farms are strengthened by internal braces with a span of more than 6 meters and a substantial snow load. With the aid of board linings, they are fastened to the farm boards as well. In this instance, it is preferable that the elements be connected on the bolts. The Finnish frame method of building homes also makes use of farms.

These components are fastened to the ribs of the bars that support the vapor barrier after the rafters or rafter trusses are installed.

The crate is installed in the direction of the perpendicular counter. The layers that come before the roof and the roofing material are then attached to it. Different types of roofs, including ones with flexible tiles, can be installed later.

Depending on the type of roof, the crate may be constructed from bars or boards no wider than 14 cm. Raw and highly knotted boards are not suitable. The type of roof determines the bar size as well: 50 x 50 mm, 50 x 60 mm, or 60 x 60 mm.

If insulation is included in the design, it is fastened between the rafters and sealed at the top and from the side of the inner space of the roof with vapor barrier film (rice.3).

A cornice, which is an overhanging rafter from the facade covered in boards or other materials, is typically placed in frame homes.

The building is shielded from snow and rain by the cornice. Rainwater that cascades from the roof enters the drainage system that is fixed on the cornice and is either directed to a storm sewer or the ground. Boards or other materials specified in the project are used to sheathe it. The cornices are tightened against the wall to prevent blowing out the attic and snow hit.

The frame house’s beams The shape of the roof determines how the frame house’s rafter system is designed. They additionally consider the local customs, the climate, and the type of coating. In the winter

In conclusion, maintaining structural integrity and safety requires a thorough understanding of a frame house’s rail system. This system provides stability and support, serving as the framework of the house. The rail system helps the structure withstand different weather conditions and external pressures by evenly distributing the load across the structure.

The flexibility of the rail system’s design and construction is one of its main advantages. The plan can be altered by builders to suit various architectural inclinations and styles. It is a sensible option for homeowners wishing to customize their area because of its adaptability, which also makes future additions or modifications easier.

Furthermore, a frame house’s energy efficiency is greatly influenced by its rail system. Thermal bridging is lessened by properly installed rails, which can eventually result in less heat loss and cheaper energy costs. Maintaining indoor comfort is a top priority in climates with extreme temperatures, which makes this insulation effect even more significant.

All things considered, a frame house’s rail system blends energy efficiency, design flexibility, and structural strength. Having a thorough understanding of this system can help you make well-informed decisions regarding the construction and long-term sustainability of your home, whether you’re building from scratch or renovating an existing one.

Examining a frame house’s rail system reveals how important it is to maintaining the structure’s durability and supporting it. This system evenly distributes the weight of the roof and offers a sturdy framework for fastening roofing materials. It typically consists of horizontal wooden beams fastened atop the house’s vertical framing. Both homeowners and builders should be aware of its design and function, as it affects the house’s stability and ability to withstand different weather conditions. One can learn more about how this crucial part improves a frame house’s overall structural integrity by digging into its specifics."

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Gleb Zuev

Exterior designer, author of books about roofing materials. I will help you make your roof not only reliable, but also beautiful.

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