Roof elements. Names

Here at "All about the Roof," we aim to solve the puzzles surrounding the design and construction of roofs. Being aware of the different components and their names is essential to comprehending roofs. Every component is essential to the overall strength, longevity, and usability of your roof.

The roof covering is the outermost layer that is visible from the outside, starting from the top. It provides protection for your house from the sun, rain, and snow. Typical roof covering materials include thatch, metal sheets, asphalt shingles, and tiles; each has advantages over the others in terms of affordability, durability, and visual appeal.

The roof structure, which consists of the rafters, trusses, and joists, is located underneath the roof covering. The structure supporting the entire roof system is provided by these parts. Whereas trusses are prefabricated frames that support the roof’s shape and evenly distribute weight, rafter beams are the inclined beams that give the roof its slope. Conversely, joists are horizontal beams that fortify the foundation of the roof.

The layer that sits between the structural elements and the roof covering is known as roof sheathing or decking, and it is another crucial component. This robust base, which is usually constructed of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), helps distribute the weight across the structure and offers a smooth surface for the roof covering to adhere to.

In order to stop water from leaking around joints, chimneys, vents, and other susceptible locations, roof flashing is essential. Flashing keeps your roof watertight by diverting water away from these important areas. It can be made of plastic or metal. Installing flashing correctly is crucial to keeping your roof structurally sound over time.

Roof elements and their names

Using one of the most intricate designs as an example—a roller roof with a bay window—we will talk about the most often utilized roof components.

Warm roof with a bayer

Let’s now discuss the components that weren’t utilized on the hollow roof. We will provide brief explanations for each element’s name right during the description.

The roof under consideration has a tent coating on the bay window, a gable dwarf overlaps the main portion, and there are no pediments.


Pediment: the multi-shaped front of the wall. There are only two hills on the sides, one with the cornice and the other lower. Although there are alternative ways to construct these components, the pediments are typically constructed from the same materials as the facade walls.

The geometric pediment type has grown significantly in the recent past, and the following forms are currently available:

  • Kelevid – resemble an inverted ship;
  • ray -shaped – the shape of the onion;
  • semicircular – a peak with a circular conclusion;
  • interrupted – there is a horizontal cornice for inserting the window;
  • Male – folded from logs as a continuation of the crown of the wall;
  • stepped – the dimensions of the steps are reduced up;
  • trapezoidal – pediment in the form of a correct trapezoid.

Anguish in the design

The pediment on typical buildings is typically shaped like a triangle.


Between the extreme rafter legs is a portion of the roof. can be shaped like a triangle, trapezoid, rectangle, etc. D.

Most apartment roofs are flat, with a slope representing a concrete floor slab. These roofs have rolled coatings and, in certain situations, are operable. To improve living conditions, they create winter gardens, playgrounds, swimming areas, and other features.

Level roof

Bay window

A portion of the structure jutting out to support the facade. A bayer’s roof may be multifaceted, rectangular, or semicircular in shape. The bay window in our example is perfectly symmetrical and sits in the center of the facade wall. The building measures 11 by 13.5 meters. The Mauerlatians and Lezhni are supported by rafter legs and vertical supports.


It is constructed from boards or wood and fastened to a specially prepared reinforcing belt or the exterior walls of the facade. Mauerlat supports the lower ends of the rafter legs. The element needs to be securely fastened. If the masonry materials used to construct the facade walls do not differ significantly in terms of their physical strength, then the reinforcing belt needs to be positioned underneath the Mauerlat. The upper crown is utilized as a Mauerlat in supermarkets. Large diameter and long wooden or metal heels are used to connect several house crowns together and stop the walls from spreading.


It is composed of a beam or board that is fastened to the armored vehicles or supporting interior partitions right away. It supports the different rafter system stops.

Waterproofing should always be installed between walls and wooden components; a common and ideal choice is regular roofing material. If you have extra cash and want to spend it, you can purchase contemporary mastics made from modified bitumen. While the financial impact is significantly different from the roofing material option, the construction effect is the same.

Brus prices


Clack beams

This feature of the architecture is related to the roof as well as the ceiling. The truth is that these beams support a number of the rafter system’s stops; without them, intricate roof structures cannot be built.

The standard insulation sizes are taken into consideration when choosing the spacing between the beams. The characteristics of the Bayer roof should be considered when installing these components, and the beams should retain all of the rafter legs. The roof and the cornice’s departure will be asymmetrical if the corner beams of the bars are not situated on the corner bisector. Put on the walls or Lezhni and Mauerlates.


The cornice is a feature that divides the wall’s vertical plane from the roof’s plane.

Can come in a variety of forms.

  1. Order cornice. It goes forward sharply and strongly hangs over the parts of the facade, performs the function of protecting from atmospheric precipitation.
  2. Gezims. The cornice has the form of a strip, divided into several longitudinal protrusions and hollows, can be located both directly under the roof and between the floors as a decorative element of the facade of the building.

It is advised to line the structure’s wooden cornice with boards as soon as the beams are installed. This will make the process of building the rafter system much easier. Furthermore, after the beams are installed, the cornice itself is much simpler to remove. You can begin installing a support frame once the cornice and ceiling beams are ready.

Holding the board’s cornice

Support frame

Among the most crucial components of the roof. consists of horizontal skating runs and vertical supports that are nailed to the lieutenants. The size of the support frame is determined by the roof’s dimensions; complex options may have multiple support frames, one placed beneath the skate and the others in the weakest areas of the rafter legs.


The roof’s upper sections have a sloping joint line. While complex roof elements have multiple horses, simple roofs only have one.

The roof’s skate component

The centering nucleus is a unique device that is fixed to the bay window’s roof support frame.

Prices for various types of roofing skates

Roofing horse

Centering nucleus

The rocker’s rafters all come together to meet it. This centering element has a height of roughly 50 cm and a thickness of roughly 30 cm. It is attached to the vertical support of the Bayer frame, composed of solid chock or glued boards, and acts as a focal point for rafters.

Rapilins of the main roof

The most significant and well-known component of the roof. Think of all the work that goes into the roof on their own, which are composed of boards in different sizes. When designing a house, calculations are done. The rafters at the top are fastened to the ridge board or to each other; they may also have a separate support frame or rest against the ridge run.

Below, rafter legs may be hanging, resting against Mauerlat.

  1. Hanging rafters. Used on small buildings and structures, have only two points of support. At the top they rest against each other or into the skate board located between the rafters. Below are resting against Mauerlat. To strengthen the structure, tightening can be used. These are ordinary boards fixing two rafter legs in the upper part, thus the simplest farms are prepared.
  2. Nasher rafters. The name of the element indicates that the rafter legs are on any additional supports. They can be placed in various places, be vertical or corner.

Rafter system characteristics


Lengthening these components that are fixed to the rafters will lower the system’s cost and enhance its functionality. Although subtle boards can be used to manufacture fillies, they are unaffected by major efforts. Mares shield the front-line walls from the damaging effects of precipitation and enable you to remove the slope outside the wall for a significant distance.

Rafters holding a filly

Box for Sofis

Appointment: enhancing the aesthetics of roof slope overhangs while reducing the possibility of the roof being undermined by strong wind gusts. It’s constructed from boards that are then sewn together with plastic or wooden fittings.

Sofis’s box

Corner rafters

The longest components of the rafter system are only utilized in intricate, multi-sized roofs. require extra care to ensure proper installation and manufacturing.


Unique components to strengthen the corner rafter fastening’s rigidity. can depend on specifically placed components or ceiling beams.

Rraftlines of the bayer

The biggest components of multi-story roofs, shutting the bay window. They rest against the centering nucleus at one end, where the upper edge converges, and the beams at the other.

This is the basic initial roof structure; to strengthen the structure and increase its bearing capacity, different vertical, horizontal, and inclined connections will need to be established in the future. The amount is determined specifically for every roof; there may be notable variations for every farm option. However, there are some common categories of rafter system components.

Lower Subbat

It is positioned with one end resting on rafters and the other on the overlap beam and vertical support at an angle to the vertical.

Vertical stand

Installed vertically, with the lower end resting on the overlap beam and supporting the rafter leg.

Upper Subscent

The lower end is supported by a horizontal tightening and is angled and mounted in the upper third of the rafter leg.

Horizontal tightening

Fixes two rafter legs that are part of the farm’s design.

Boards, long vertical supports, and the ruff of the beam are used to construct racks, puffs, and struts. Designers frequently provide paired boards as a cheaper and more dependable option for creating these elements. Indicators of bending resistance for boil boards are consistently higher than those for beams of the same thickness.


The point where the slopes meet at the acute angle. This is the most vulnerable part of the roof, and this is also where leaks usually happen. The chorus is a unique beam or board that is installed in the yndovs. Only top-notch lumber should be used when building yends, and precautions against pest damage and decay must be taken.

Jack of Metal

Suspens of ridge run

Made of bars or boards and used to reinforce the structure on large roofs.

Pauses in ridge running

Every component of the rafter system needs to be firmly fastened to every other component. Modern metal perforated plates and corners, regular nails, and metal brackets can all be used for this. You can start the crate’s manufacturing process once all the work is finished.


Technical specifications for roofing material are based on the physical properties of roofing coatings. A lattice or continuous crate is possible. incredibly significant in terms of how long the roof element operates. The crate should ensure that the metal tile sheets are securely fastened and won’t come off in the event of strong wind gusts, and that the roofing won’t buckle under the weight of the snow cover.

A crate can be constructed from both new and old wood. The absence of putrefactive damage is their primary prerequisite. It doesn’t matter how the crate looks because roofing coatings always conceal it.


When mounted on warm roofs, it creates the ideal environment for natural ventilation, which drives out moisture. lengthens the roof’s operational lifespan and guards against the loaded rafter system elements failing too soon. The counterparties’ linear parameters have values that are strictly normalized. The effectiveness of natural ventilation is violated when professional advice is not followed, and the resulting circumstances are unpleasant.

Talk and reciprocity

Wind boards

Rooted from the sideboard on the crate. Serve two purposes: alert the roof and enhance the house’s aesthetics. can be made of plastic, metal, or wood.

Setting up wind boards

Cornice boards

Enhancing the roof’s design, alert the rafter system’s wake. constructed from wood or metal.

A lounge for sofitis

Prices for construction boards

Construction boards


Creating a sealed roof covering and shielding the interior from the elements—rain, snow, and wind—are the primary tasks. There are many different kinds of roofs available today, and each one has unique technical features. When making a decision, you should consider the length of the operation more than the cost. The inexpensive roof only lasts for around ten years, and because of this short service life, it is very costly to replace the entire roof.

Roof pie

This element, which has multiple layers, is only found on warm roofs.

  1. Barrow. Purpose – to prevent moisture from entering heaters. This element of the roof is required only in cases where mineral wool or ecowata is used for thermal protection. These materials are able to absorb a large amount of moisture, and in a humid state, thermal conductivity indicators increase significantly. The efficiency of the thermal protection of the roof is reduced, the wooden elements of the rafter system are in contact for a long time with a wet insulation. As a result – accelerated damage to lumber.
  2. Insulation layer. Most often used mineral wool. Really has only two advantages – does not allocate harmful chemical compounds into the air and is not afraid of open fire. Disadvantages – high cost, rather large mass, significant indicators of hygroscopicity and purliness by the wind. Insulation materials based on polymers of these shortcomings do not have. As for the release of harmful substances, modern foams for these indicators are considered safe for health and sanitary organizations are allowed to use in residential premises.
  3. Wind protection. Warns the blowing of warm air from the insulation. It is used only when mineral wool was used as a heater. High -tech modern membranes are used for wind protection, they pass steam from mineral wool, protect it from wind and condensation.
  4. Dropper. A special element of warm roofs, collects condensate drops from the roof and wind protection and directs them into the drainage system.
  5. Contact. The obligatory element of the warm roof is installed between wind protection and roofing coatings. The counterpart provides the functionality of the natural ventilation. Due to this, moisture is quickly removed, rotting of wooden elements of the rafter system is not allowed.
  6. Roofing. Both cheap rolled materials for flat single -sloping roofs, as well as expensive natural piece tiles for complex design roofs.

Metal tile roof pie

Pie in the roofbeneath the soft roof

The materials that make up an element of a warm roof can go by different names, but this does not affect how structurally sound they are.


The goal is to remove precipitation and meltwater from the roof’s slopes, avoid overly moistening the ground beneath the structure’s foundation, and shield the base from flooding. These roof components come in various shapes and sizes, and they can be constructed of metal or plastic. but always have the same components.

    The gutter takes water from the slopes and directs it to the vertical elements of the drainage. The gutter has end plugs, is equipped with connecting and rotary elements.

Disperse the gutter


The drain pipe’s holder

There’s a gaping galvanized pipe.

The drainage pipe’s tee

The pipe’s knee

Drains are a crucial component of any kind of roof and of any kind of building.

Prices for drains


Snow protection

This part of the roof serves two purposes: it keeps pedestrians safe and shields gutters from undue strain during the springtime accumulation of snow from the roof’s slopes. Steel sheet or metal pipes are used to make snow holders. Only in areas where the roof is drooping is it forbidden to fasten something—it must be fixed to rafters or crates. The climate in the building will determine which kind of snow retainers to use and where to install them.

Rooftop snow holder

Attic premises

Both residential and non-residential roof elements are possible. Residential attics were formerly used for other purposes, but they are now referred to as attics. Regretfully, not as frequently as a lot of homeowners desired. The extreme retrogradeness of Soviet building materials and technologies was the issue. As soon as imported items started to be sold domestically, attics gained enormous popularity in our nation.

The beam-equipped attic

Sleeping quarters

The majority of the time, non-residential attics are utilized in different home additions and structures. They are only utilized for storing different items; in rural areas, they are converted to hold crops.

Understanding the fundamental components of a roof is essential to comprehending roof construction. Every component, from the eaves at the edges to the ridge at the peak, is essential to shielding a building from the weather. In order to help homeowners and enthusiasts alike better understand the "anatomy" of their roof, this article examines the fundamental parts of roofs and provides straightforward explanations of their names and functions.

Ridge The highest point of the roof where two slopes meet.
Eaves The lower edges of the roof that overhang the walls.

It is clear from comprehending the various components of a roof that each one is essential to the longevity and performance of the structure. Every part of the structure, from the fundamentals like rafters and decking to the coverings like shingles and underlayment, has a specific function in protecting the building from the weather.

The skeleton of the roof, or rafter system, gives the whole thing support. They serve as the foundation for laying the roof deck, or sheathing. This deck supports the weight of everything above it and ensures structural integrity by acting as the base for the topmost layer of the roof.

The underlayment, a weather-resistant layer that shields against moisture and improves the roof’s capacity to shed water, is placed on top of the deck. The visible outer layer, known as shingles, is made of a variety of materials, including metal, wood, and asphalt. It offers extra protection from UV rays, rain, and wind in addition to being aesthetically pleasing.

Other necessary components are vents, which are vital for preserving adequate ventilation in the attic space, and flashings, which stop water from leaking into weak spots like valleys and joints. Even though they are not a part of the roof, gutters and downspouts are extremely important in keeping water away from buildings and preventing damage to the foundation and roof of the building.

Comprehending these diverse constituents not only facilitates homeowners’ decision-making regarding roof upkeep and repairs but also helps them recognize the intricacy and significance of a well-built roof in guaranteeing the durability and security of their residences.

Video on the topic

Contabbed roof elements 1. End and cornice planks in Assamas / Galaxy

Types of roofs and materials for the roof

What do you think, which element is the most important for a reliable and durable roof?
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Alexandra Fedorova

Journalist, author of articles on construction and repair. I will help you understand the complex issues related to the choice and installation of the roof.

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