Roof bitumen

Welcome to "All about the Roof," your one-stop shop for all things roofing-related, from supplies to methods. This article explores the realm of roof bitumen, a multipurpose substance commonly utilized in roofing and construction projects.

Roof bitumen, also known as asphalt or tar, is a petroleum-based liquid or semi-solid that is black, sticky, and extremely viscous. Its adhesive and waterproofing qualities make it an essential part of many roofing systems. Bitumen creates a strong, weather-resistant coating on roofs to shield structures from the elements and water damage.

There are various varieties of roof bitumen that are designed to meet particular roofing requirements. For example, bitumen that has been modified to include ingredients that increase its durability and flexibility can be used on both flat and low-slope roofs. Conversely, bitumen-saturated roofing felts or mats are layered multiple times and alternated with bitumen layers in built-up roofing (BUR) systems.

The ease of application of roof bitumen is one of its main benefits. Depending on the kind of bitumen and roofing system, hot mopping, torching, or cold adhesive techniques can all be used to install it. Because of its adaptability, labor costs and time are reduced during installation and maintenance.

Manufacturers have created eco-friendly bitumen substitutes that provide comparable performance while having less of an impact on the environment in response to growing environmental concerns. These substitutes typically integrate repurposed materials or bio-based elements, conforming to sustainable construction guidelines and standards.

Knowing the characteristics and uses of roof bitumen is crucial whether you’re thinking about installing a new roof or fixing an old one. As we investigate its advantages, uses, and advancements in roofing technology, you’ll be able to make well-informed choices for your roofing requirements.

Roofing bitumen – inexpensive and high -quality waterproofing

One common material used to guarantee building waterproofing is bitumen for roofing.

This material is highly desirable for the construction of residential, household, industrial, and other kinds of objects due to its absolute moisture resistance and low cost.

Production and types of roof bitumen

Bitumen can be made from natural oxidation or by refining by-products of oil extraction using a chemical or biochemical process (for instance, in the event that oil deposit conservation is violated).

Innate bitumen The bitumen is extracted from the asphalt rocks in mines and quarries by applying a temperature treatment or exposing them to organic solvents.

Bitumen artificial for roofing These are materials derived from the oxidation of refined oil products, which are then combined with extracted products from the manufacturing of asphalt and technical oils.

Every type of roof bitumen has a flash temperature of no less than 240 degrees and a self-flaming temperature of no less than 300 degrees. Bitumen for roofing is utilized as an independent material for waterproofing roofs or as an impregnant in roofing materials.

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Bitumen paper, roofing material, rubemast, peramin, Rubitex, and other products are examples of roofing materials made with bitumen. Bituma BNK 90/30 or BNK 90/40 may serve as the cover material, while Bituma BNK 45/90 and BNK 45/180 are utilized as the impregnating materials.

Quality indicators and marking of roof bitumen

The extensibility (oral) of the material, which describes its capacity to stretch into thread at a specific temperature, and the fragility and softening temperatures are the most crucial markers of bitumen quality. One crucial feature is the so-called penetration, which indicates the amount of material that a specific type of needle can penetrate at a temperature of 25 degrees and with a load of 100 grams on it.

There are standards-based norms for each bitumen quality indicator, and these norms vary based on the material’s intended application.

Properties of roofing bitumen in general

All forms of roofing bitumen are primarily hydrophobic, meaning they don’t just absorb moisture but also don’t get wet. One factor in bitumen’s resistance to water is its pore-free structure. The effects of aqueous solutions of aggressive substances (salts, many types of alkalis, or acids) are not easily absorbed by roof bitumen. In addition, bitumen may degrade or lose its characteristics when exposed to organic solvents such as benzene, acetone, turpentine, gasoline, etc. Because roofed bitumen is frost-resistant, it can be used extensively in construction projects due to its water resistance and low cost.

Bitumen waterproofing technologies

A coating or pouring technique is used to create bitumen waterproofing for roofs. These technologies are distinct from one another and merit closer examination.

Apply bitumen that has been heated to a temperature of approximately 120 degrees on the roof’s purified and dry surface in order to carry out loud (cast) waterproofing. It only takes one layer of material to reliably protect against moisture in this way, though. Since molten bitumen freezes quickly, special attention should be paid to leveling the material on the surface. This requires dexterity and, most of the time, the participation of multiple people. The bitumen layer must fully solidify before the roof’s finishing coating is applied.

One person can complete the less time-consuming process of coating waterproofing, but high-quality coating must be ensured. Applying multiple layers (between two and four), each with a millimeter-thickness, is necessary.

By mixing certain ingredients with roofing bitumen, material could be applied to the surface without heating up. Bitumen mastic is the term for such materials. Working with them is like producing a coating that is waterproof.

Preparation of the surface for waterproofing bitumen

The surface that will receive bitumen application should be thoroughly inspected to identify any areas that are damaged or brittle. Following that, potholes and strokes are sealed with building and repair materials, and plots with breaks or damage are filled in with a solid layer.

Everybody The roof’s surface is cleared of debris, soot, and dust. The surface can be cleaned, but you must wait for it to dry before applying the waterproofing layer. Certain varieties of bitumen mastics permit application on a damp surface. Conventional coating or loud waterproofing can only be applied to fully dry surfaces.

Asphalt roofs Bitumen roofing production and varieties, quality markers and labeling, bitumen waterproofing technology: dousing, coating, bitumen mastic, preparation

Types and use of bitumen

Bitumen is a byproduct of mineral processing and an essential component of oil. It comprises derivatives containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and metals. This material comes in multiple varieties, each with unique properties, compositions, and applications.


Bitumen is categorized using a number of indicators. The origin and composition are the first set of criteria.

  1. Natural bitumen is obtained when the oil minerals are extracted. Their main composition is hydrocarbons and derivatives, which are obtained with active oxidation of oil substances in the bowels of the Earth. Natural hydrocarbon can be solid or viscous. In the usual form, the substance is obtained in production, separating the necessary fractions.
  2. Bitumes for laying asphalt are obtained when mining porous minerals, caught deep in the bowels of the earth"s crust. The breed is crushed along with a hydrocarbon, it turns out material for road work.
  3. Building bitumen is a synthetic product obtained from oil industrial. The material is used for waterproofing structures and the production of roofing roller materials and soft tiles. Synthetic hydrocarbon of a solid structure, it is melted to a liquid state for use, after which it again fixes its shape on the working surface.

The composition of construction bitumen, which is used to manufacture roofing materials and waterproof buildings, is similar. It is made up of:

  • Carbon – about 80%,
  • Hydrogen – approximately 15%,
  • Sulfur – 2 … 9%,
  • Oxygen – up to 5%,
  • Nitrogen – up to 2%.

The principal components of the substance are:

  1. A hard part – asphalt – high molecular weight hydrocarbons, they are complemented by paraffins.
  2. Dark brown resins, giving bitumen a saturated color.
  3. The consistency in the molten state is provided by oil fractions of hydrocarbons.

Different combinations of components result in different properties; for instance, depending on the brand, bitumen’s density in kilograms per cubic meter can range from 100 to 1400.


The need to separate the material into groups resulted from the wide variety of bitumen. Therefore, a building material was marked. It contains information about the material’s provenance, intended use, heating and penetration temperatures, and more. Examine the following BNK 90/30 example:

  • BNK – Bitum oil roofing,
  • 90 – The optimum heating temperature of a solid for melting,
  • 30 – the value of penetration, that is, the size of the penetration of the penetromometer needle into bitumen at 25 ° C in mm.

Bitumen from the oil industry

Brands of construction bitumen that are used to waterproof structures include BN 50/50, BN 70/30, and BN 90/10. It is important to remember that lower penetration results from higher numerator of the fraction of recognition, or softening temperature.

BNI-IV-3 and BNI-IV are the subspecies of construction bitumen isolation. The subterranean pipelines are treated in this manner to prevent corrosion.

Bitumen content: 0.95… 1.50 g/cm3.

Roof bitumen from the following brands is used to make rolled materials (such as roofing material, rubemast, euro-rubled, and others) and soft shingle tiles:

  • BNK 90/30 is used to cover the roof, organizing the finish layer,
  • BNK 40/180 is suitable for soaking surfaces for waterproofing,
  • BNK 45/190 serves as a material for the manufacture of roofing materials.

The bitumen melting temperature in the roofing variety of the material is low and does not always correlate with the cover’s hardness. For this kind, the sheet’s plasticity is crucial since it will result in a canvas with a smooth texture.

Numerous material types are included in the category of road bitumen. Since roads are responsible means of communication, their primary distinction is the climate zone. Calculate the highest and lowest temperatures taking the regions into consideration:

  • For regions with low temperatures, in winter, bitumons of brands BND 90/130, BND 130/200, BND 200/300 are chosen over -20 ° C.
  • For a moderate winter -20 … -10 ° C are Suitable brands BND 60/90 and previously listed 90/130, 130/200, 200/300.
  • On the ground with temperatures in winter within -10 … -5 ° C, the roadway is laid using BND 40/60 bitumen, BN 90/130, BN 130/200, BN 200/300.
  • For warm regions with an average temperature in the winter +5 ° C, hydrocarbons of brands BND 40/60, BN 90/130, BN 130/200, BN 200/300 and previously listed are used.

Preparation and application technology

It’s easy to use bitumen roller materials for waterproofing and roofing; just roll them out to fit the shape of the building or onto the roof, then secure them with glue or surge made of molten bitumen. Conversely, the latter can be used as a stand-alone building element. It needs to be properly prepared for these purposes.

There are two ways to sell bitumen:

After being stirred, ready mastics are brushed onto the surface. These solutions are more expensive than solid bitumen, but other from convenience, they are essentially equal.

Then, should bitumen thicken, to dissolve it? White spite, gasoline, and kerosene are appropriate. They are added little by little, mixed well, and allowed to react with mastic. A bitumen spot can be used to remove the same materials from a car’s, floor, or fabric.

You will need a gas burner and a thick-walled boiler with a lid in order to dissolve hard bitumen. Small pieces of the material are crumbling and filling the container to two thirds. Raise the boiler’s temperature to the brand’s recommended level, maybe even higher than 10-15 °C. Simultaneously, temperature and time should be observed: a higher burner temperature will cause the solution to melt more quickly, but an overheated burner cannot be tolerated as this will result in a decrease in hydrocarbon quality. Each brand has its own maximum boum boiling temperature, which is +200 °C.

Pop-up solid particles should be captured and disposed of during heating.

The surface is covered with a heated solution using rollers and a wide brush. When handling hot materials, take precautions and wear personal protective equipment.

At a layer thickness of 1.5–2.5 mm, the bitumen consumption per square meter of waterproofing is 1–1.5 kg on average.

Bitumen types and applications One byproduct of refining oil is bitumen. Building was where he was most useful. Think about bituman brands and varieties, and the subtleties of application.

"Roof bitumen, which provides durability and weather resistance, is essential to modern roofing. This multipurpose, petroleum-based substance is mainly used to seal joints in roofing systems and waterproof flat roofs. Because of its adhesive qualities, roofs last longer and maintain a tight seal against moisture. Roof bitumen is essential to the construction and upkeep of both residential and commercial roofs because it offers an efficient barrier against the elements when applied as a protective layer for asphalt shingles or as part of built-up roofing systems."

Types of roller materials for the roof

As the person who initiated the roof modification, what is the most frequently asked question? Which kind of roofing material should I choose, correctly? Although there are countless types of bitumen and metal tiles, as well as other affordable roofing materials, available in the Hut’s online heat store, many people are unaware of the roll roof. additionally in vain.

Roll roofing materials only advance and get better at what they do. They fit vintage designs perfectly. The roll coating is particularly frequently used in flat roof installations. One advantage of using roll coating is that it can be applied to the roof in a variety of configurations. How do rolled materials relate to this? Let’s start with the roofing material and the euro-ruble. Second, all membranes for windproofing, waterproofing, and vapor barriers. There are two varieties of rolled building materials that can be fastened by this method:

  1. Those that are melted or glued to the base.
  2. Membrane, which are attached mechanically. They are breathing, or between them make a gap for ventilation.

Ruberoid – This is a roll building material, which is made of cardboard and impregnated with tar or bitumen. On both sides, building materials are covered with a refractory substance, and is covered with sprinkles on top so that the material is more durable, and also so that it does not stick together in a folded form.
uses roofing material as an independent roofing, and as a lining carpet (while the roofing is marked with the letter “K”, and the lining with the letter “P”). This building material is distinguished by elasticity and resistance to moisture, ultraviolet radiation, and other natural phenomena.
Recently, not cardboard, but glassolt or synthetic canvas has been used to make roofing grounds. The powder also differs in decorative properties, so it can be in different colors.

The only non-flowing roll materials are Permamin and are composed of cardboard. Unlike roofing material, permamine is impregnated with bitumen in a single layer and lacks sprinkle. Merely is a tar-soaked bitumen analogue of pergamine.

Insulating roller building materials called polymer membranes are utilized for complexly configured or flat roofs. The polymer membrane is a single piece of canvas joined at the seams by welding. Membranes are fastened to the roof using dowels or loaded across the whole surface (e.g., gravel). All materials for roller roofs are good, but you should choose the one that works best for your roof. Consider the material’s technical specifications, how it is fastened, how long it will last, and how to maintain it.

Varieties of roof roller materials What is the most frequently asked question about roof roller types from someone who initiated the roof modification? Which kind of roofing material should I choose, correctly? There are hundreds of different kinds.

Bitumen oil, roofing oil (GOST)

Bitumen for Building Construction and Roofing (GOST) is an organic material with a resinous consistency that comprises hydrocarbon elements, nitrogen, oxygen, and compounds containing metals. The natural world contains a variety of bitumen forms, including liquid bitumen found in oil and solid bitumen found in resin and asphalt. Bitumen is soluble in organic compounds like serowlose and benzene. It is unaffected by water and only reacts negatively to it.

Materials based on bitumen are frequently utilized in construction.

Processing of bitumen raw materials

A well, mine, or career path are used to mine bitumen. Construction uses a wide range of oil products, whether they are liquid, solid, or viscous. Oil bitumen is produced for use in waterproofing, construction, roofing, and roads. Sunday materials are also utilized in paint and chemical applications.

Using bitumen as roofing material

Excellent guidance! The primary markers that are used to ascertain the extent of bitumen in a solid state are viscosity, plasticity, amorphousness, and brittleness. For liquids: the percentage of volatile oils and their viscosity.

Oil is the primary raw material used in the production of roofing bitumen and oil construction. Bitumen material is obtained from heavy residues following fractional distillation and the extraction of light substances from its composition, including lubricants, gasoline, ligroine, kerosene, and other concurrent derivatives of oil products. The quality and consistency of the oil determines how much of the product is produced. The current process for making bitumen involves vacuum distillation and atmospheric separation, followed by the oxidation or mixing of solid residues.

The oxidation process involves blowing off the leftover residue from oil refinement until a finished product with a predetermined viscosity is achieved. Through its interaction with the budron, oxygen facilitates the bitumen oxidation reaction and the formation of high molecular weight components within it. Using this technology, you can obtain a high-quality product. It is used to make oil roof bitumen, which has a GOST created especially for it.

Asphalt is produced using hard bitumen.

Mixing is the second manufacturing process used after distillation. Compound materials are then obtained at the output after that. The fundamental step in this process is treating the bundon material with liquid propane and combining it with oil distillates.

Bitumen properties and indicators

The temperature, length of mechanical load effects, and oily substance content all affect the plasticity indicator. The ability of the material to stretch into a thin thread on the ductylometer—a device used to measure plasticity—determines the GOST of oil roofing bitumen. The test is run between zero and twenty-five degrees Celsius. The bitumen’s plasticity can be determined by measuring the thread’s length at the moment of rupture.

The material’s structural-mechanical foundation is reflected in its viscosity. This feature reflects the compositional makeup and response to a specific temperature. The viscosity indicator rises at low temperatures and falls at high ones. Bitumen oil roofs, GOST Testing procedure that uses a needle to check viscosity and solidity.

The application of bitumen coating to the roof

A pentameter is used to fix its deep penetration into the material under specific load, temperature, and immersion time conditions. This indicator is higher at lower penetration depths. When the substance under study passes through the viscometer’s opening in a predetermined amount of time, the viscosity level of the liquid materials is ascertained.

Lowering the temperature based on the "ball and ring" apparatus. The research’s basic idea is that a bitumen sample is put on a brass round hole with a specific diameter, and it gradually warms up under constant metal ball pressure until the device’s lower bar is touched. The range of 20 to 95 °C is the standard softening temperature.

The temperature of fragility is another feature of bitumen material’s heat resistance. This indicator is based on the time at which the material begins to show signs of cracking while being simultaneously bent and cooled.

A wooden floor can be waterproofed with Rolonnoy bitumen.

The ignition temperature. When bitumen is heated, pairs form that catch fire when they come into contact with an open flame. The degree of fire hazard is determined by measuring the moment of vapor tanning on a specific device during the study. Behind a 200 °C indicator is the typical warm-up indicator for solid or viscous substances until the point of ignition.

Numerous devices and technologies have been created to ascertain the properties of adhesives. The visual method is the easiest to use. Verification does not require sophisticated equipment.

Excellent guidance! The ability of bitumen materials to adhere to both organic and mineral surfaces is a crucial characteristic.

After bitumen is applied to the gravel’s surface, it boils in water. The highest rating on the five-point scale is used to estimate the indicator if, following the experiment, the film stays in the same location. If the film does not adhere to the subject at all during the boiling process, the adhesiveness is rated as inadequate.

Without bitumen, a modern road surface device is incomplete.

Bitumen oil, roofing oil (GOST)

You can identify the brands of products, which are classified by GOSTs as follows, by obtaining the findings of studies on viscosity, plasticity, and softening temperature.

An article about the subject:

Roof roofing materials: varieties and costs of contemporary coatings. Different coating types. advantages, disadvantages, and comparative features. grouping of materials used in roof construction.

Construction using bitumen oil

Three types of GOST are distinguished by the designation BN. "BN" is an acronym for "Bitumen oil." The softening temperature and the average value of the needle penetration limits are shown by the numbers that come next.

Rooftop and bitumen oils (GOST) Bitumen Oil roofing and construction (GOST). Complex structures can be waterproofed with bitumen where other materials cannot be applied.

Bitumen, which is commonly called asphalt in everyday speech, is an essential component of roofing systems all over the world. It is a well-liked option for both residential and commercial roofs due to its adaptability and durability. BUR (built-up roofs) and asphalt shingles both use bitumen, which has good waterproofing qualities that shield buildings from the weather.

The versatility of bitumen roofing in terms of climate tolerance and architectural style is one of its main benefits. Its application temperature is not restricted, enabling a range of installation techniques. Because of its versatility, it can be used on sloped or flat roofs and provides dependable protection from UV rays, rain, and snow. Furthermore, bitumen roofs have a reputation for being long-lasting—they can frequently last 20 years or longer with regular maintenance.

In addition, bitumen is prized for its affordability. Bitumen offers good performance at a relatively low cost when compared to many other roofing materials. Because of its low cost and simplicity of installation and maintenance, bitumen is a sensible option for cost-conscious individuals and companies looking for dependable roofing solutions.

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Denis Shcherbakov

Professional roofer with 20 years of experience. I know everything about the installation, repair and maintenance of various types of roofs. I will be happy to share my knowledge and experience with you.

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