The design of a flat roof made of rolled materials

Because they are practical and affordable, rolled roofing materials are often used in modern construction. In contrast to conventional pitched roofs, which feature a slope, flat roofs are almost completely flat. This design allows for additional usable space, such as rooftop gardens, solar panels, or HVAC units, making it especially appropriate for urban buildings where space utilization is critical.

In order to provide durability and weatherproofing, layers of materials are usually applied sequentially during the construction of a flat roof. Because they are flexible and simple to install, rolled materials like modified bitumen and EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) are frequently utilized. To create a seamless membrane, these materials are supplied in big rolls that are unrolled, adhered, and heat-welded together.

Making sure there is enough drainage is a crucial factor to take into account when designing a flat roof made of rolled materials. Even though they seem level, flat roofs have a small pitch that directs water toward scuppers or drains to avoid ponding and possible water damage. To preserve the integrity of the waterproofing, flashing around edges, vents, and penetrations must be installed correctly.

Rolling materials for flat roofs have the benefit of not degrading in the face of temperature changes and UV radiation. Because of their good flexibility, they can flex and expand with the structure of the building without breaking. Rolling roofing materials are also more affordable in the long run because they require less upkeep than other roofing materials.

The correct device of the roll roof

A building without a roof is inconceivable. It is the barrier that stops heat leakage and shields the interior from atmospheric precipitation. The monolist of the roof will determine how comfortable the home is to live in for the most part. Clay and sheet iron were previously used to create the tightness of the roof. The roof required frequent repairs because these techniques were not very strong. The scenario has evolved with the growth of the building sector and the discovery of new materials. A novel approach to roll roofing installation has surfaced.

They typically use melted roll materials to produce a trustworthy roof waterproofing.

What is waterproofing for

Waterproofing is arguably the most crucial component of the roof’s apparatus. She is the one who keeps leaks in the roof covered. This preserves both the attic overlap and the characteristics of the materials used to make the rafters. Products with water-repellent qualities from the construction industry are always used to create the waterproofing layer. Manufacturers of roofing materials provide a wide range of options to ensure the home is comfortable to live in and durable.

The type of roof device itself determines which waterproofing roofing coatings are best. Private homes typically have a gable roof or a damaged roof. Here, roll roofing material and membranes with a polyethylene or polyhlorvinyl base are frequently used as a waterproofing layer. An additional circumstance in structures with flat roofs. Swimming materials are used in the great majority of cases to create a waterproofing layer on the roof.

Types of roller materials for roofing

Bitumen-based materials—of which there are two types—are laid using specialized mastics that are made of molten bitumen.

Materials on a polyethylene basis with a thin film protecting the lower adhesive layer.

Components that are melted onto the roof’s surface. Their technology allows them to operate a gas burner.

All roller materials can be classified as single- or multi-layer carpet intended uses. The former are typically made up of a lot more layers of bitumen, polymer components, and fiberglass. They have a pushing-shaped upper decorative layer composed of foil, shale, sand, and basalt. Hydropecloisol, glass insulus, Rubitex, fiberglass, prophetic skill, and glass insulator are the most sought-after roof devices.

Properties of rolled roof

When working with roll roofs, you can complete the coating installation quickly and with extra effort.

Despite the fact that these types of roofing are difficult to call elite, they are often indispensable in modern construction. The simplicity of their laying allows you to carry out work at a fairly fast pace. The undoubted advantage of these materials is that they can be laid on flat and hollow roofs up to 11 degrees of the slope, which is impossible when using ondulin and other coatings. The roll roof is elastic and, as a result, is not subject to cracking. It has high strength characteristics and acts as a sound insulator. These materials comply with all fire safety standards and are made of environmentally friendly components. They retain their high thermal insulation properties even with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays.

Working technology on the installation of roofing using roller materials

Roll material laying technology has unique properties. its primary producers of Isoflex and Technonikol. Most rolled coatings are in fact. They are not utilized on roofs that have rafters or ceilings made of wood. They are used as a coating for hollow and flat roofs. The most common material used for this purpose is melted roofing material (Euro-Ruberoid). This material is made of fiberglass that has bitumen applied to both sides. Modern roofing materials are strong and resilient, in contrast to their antiquated counterparts that had a cardboard layer. How should these repairs be made to the roof device?

Because roller roofs are elastic, there is less chance of damage to them.

  1. Preparatory stage. First of all, the concrete or other surface must be cleaned of garbage and dirt. It is desirable that there is not even small sand left. In the event that the roof is repaired, then the old coating is removed.
  2. Cracks and chips of the concrete surface should be eliminated using cement-sand mortar.
  3. Priming the base with a bitumen primer.
  4. Gluing roofing material occurs due to softening the lower layer of the canvas. This can be done using a gas burner or white-spirit.
  5. Rolled material is rolled out so that its direction is perpendicular to the drainage of water. You should start styling with the lower parts of the roof or from its edge, if the roof has no slope.
  6. Warming up the lower layer of the material, the roll is gradually rolled forward. Such a coating will last at least a quarter of a century.
  7. Proper gluing of the paintings and strengthening angles is carried out by mastics based on bitumen.

Utilizing bitumen mastic to lay roofing material

  1. The base on which the material will be laid should be cleaned of dirt.
  2. Hot bitumen mastic is prepared. Then it is a distance of 0.7-1 m to be the surface of the roof.
  3. The manufacturer processes the lower layer of the roll material with talcum to avoid sticking strata. Therefore, as the work progresses, it is thoroughly swept manually with a brush with hard bristles. This must be done, otherwise the clutch of the roof with the surface of the roof will not be strong enough.
  4. The roll roofing material is gradually rolled into the distance that is treated with bitumen.
  5. Those places that fell on mastic are thoroughly aligned, starting from the middle. It is necessary to ensure that there are no “bubbles”.
  6. Когда полотно будет полностью раскатано, по его поверхности нужно пройтись специальным, довольно тяжелым валиком. This is done to improve the quality of adhesion of the material with the surface of the roof.
  7. The next roll is laid so that a overlap of 10-15 cm is formed.

The multilayer device of the roof

It is well known that the roof must endure heavy loads from the elements, such as wind, rain, snow, and temperature variations. As a result, the coating’s strength ought to match their resistance. A multi-layer pie made of roofing material or other roll material is assembled for this purpose. The roof’s slope affects the thickness of the material. The number of layers can range from two to five depending on this factor.

When covering flat roofs, the maximum number of material layers are required. In this instance, it is capable of supporting a person’s weight and even surpassing it without causing harm to itself.

When the slope of the pie is no more than two to three degrees, it is called a four-layer pie.

If the roof slope is up to 10 degrees, three layers of ruberoid are required. You can safely use two layers of roofing material, underlying and external, if the slope is greater than this.

Roll roof technology is a straightforward and dependable method. Everyone is compelled to use this contemporary material to cover the roof.

Flat roof – the main secrets of the "fifth facade"

The roof, which architects frequently refer to as the "fifth facade," is the last but just as crucial process in the building of a house. While flat roofs are becoming more and more common, raise roofs are still thought to be a classic choice for single-family homes. And the whole secret is that there are numerous benefits to using a flat roof device.

What is a flat roof?

This type of roofs is widely applicable both in industrial and private construction. The main difference between flat roofs from the pitched "brothers" in the use of piece and sheet roofing materials. A flat roof device involves the use of materials that can form a continuous carpet. These include polymer, bitumen and bitumen-polymeric materials, as well as mastic. In order for any temperature differences and mechanical deformations that are subject to the base of the roof is perceived quite well, such a carpet should differ in high elasticity. The basis for it can serve as supporting slabs, screeds, as well as the surface of thermal insulation. All layers laid on top of each other are the so -called flat roof pie.

Operated and unexplosive flat roofs

It is advisable for buildings that allow people to frequently exit through the roof or have heavy objects on them to make use of their exploited roofs. This kind of flat roof design has a unique feature that involves covering a waterproofing layer with a hard base or specialized screed. This is required in order for the roofing structure to support any weight, which is frequently dispersed unevenly across the surface. In this instance, the sturdy base will prevent the waterproofing carpet from being pushed and help preserve its integrity.

Unlike roofs that are operated for unutilized roofs, laying on a hard base’s waterproofing is not necessary. Soft insulation is utilized in this situation. When there is no pressure applied to the roof’s surface during the operating period, such roofs can be used appropriately. However, even if maintenance is required for such a roof, the problem can be solved by installing ramps or transitional bridges that help distribute pressure to the roof surface evenly.

When compared to operated ones, the cost of an unexplowned flat roof device will be orders of magnitude lower, but its service life will be significantly shorter. As a result, selecting a roof requires careful consideration of all the advantages and disadvantages.

Other varieties of flat roofs

The following kinds of flat roofs are distinguished based on the design elements:

The conventional choice is referred to as a soft roof, also known as a classic flat roof. Its base is a load-bearing plate, and on top of the vapor barrier layer is a heat-insulating material (mineral wool slabs are typically utilized). In turn, because thermal insulation contains roller bituminous materials, it shields the waterproofing carpet from the effects of atmospheric precipitation.

A type of inversion flat roof

The insulation layer of an inversion-type flat roof device is situated above the waterproofing carpet rather than beneath it, in contrast to the previous type. An inversion roof’s service life can be significantly extended by this feature, which shields the waterproofing from UV radiation, frost and heat waves, abrupt temperature changes, and mechanical damage. It is possible to operate a flat roof with this design. For instance, you could lay grass there, fill in flowerbeds with flowers, place a little furniture there, or just lounge in the sun.

Moisture that accumulates in the floor slabs and insulation is the main reason for the formation of the “bubbles”, which subsequently lead to leaks and even ruptures of the roofing carpet. And, unfortunately, removal of this reason is completely impossible. In the West, this issue is easily solved when using the so -called "ventilated roofs". The nodes of a flat roof of this type provide partial fixing of the first layer of the carpet to the roof using glue, or laying on mechanical clamps. As a result, an air gap is formed between the base and roof, which excludes excessive pressure of water vapor. With outdoor air through the adjacency, it is reported by the contour of the roof, or through special exhaust deflectors.

Preparation of the base

The first step in achieving a long-lasting and high-quality roof is to consider a flat roof plan; the drawing will also be of great assistance during the installation process. Generally speaking, a flat roof can be divided into three main nodes: a supporting structure, where a monolith can serve as a concrete plate or an internship; layers of steam, heat, and waterproofing; and a sloping layer that drains water.

The base preparation will be the first step in building the flat roof. This kind of roof is typically coated with a reinforced concrete slab, profiled by a steel sheet, or an entire covering of wood.

A leveling screed of sand asphalt concrete or cement-sand solution must be made if the surface of the reinforced concrete base is uneven. Depending on the type of base, the screed’s thickness will vary: 10–15 mm for concrete; 15–25 mm for hard heater slabs; and 25–30 mm for soft heater slabs.

The screed is first applied to the lights and then to the slopes if the roof’s slope is less than 15%. More than 15% of the actions in the case of a slope are carried out in the opposite order: slopes are aligned first, and then work with mosses and yendovs comes in.

Any components that extend above the roof, such as parapet walls or smoke pipes, are plastered up to a height of 25 cm. Special rails are installed at the top of the plastered surface to hold the roller carpet in place. To improve the quality of the base’s grip with the rolled carpet, the roof screed is made of soil mixed with mastics.

It has to be well dried and completely cleaned of impurities before applying the primer.

Preparation of roofing soft materials

The flat roof’s roof plan must account for the work necessary to prepare roofing materials for their future use.

Before using roller materials, they need to be thoroughly inspected to make sure no defects of any kind, such as cracks, irregularities, or oil spots, are present. They are then stored inside out or in a rolled shape during the day.

Mastic for the roof has two simultaneous uses. It is a material that can be utilized independently to provide a smooth coating for repairs. Additionally, it can be used as an adhesive tool to join roll materials to the base. You can use bitumen mastics in a hot or cold environment.

The use of mastic as an independent roofing material

It is possible for the flat roof to be constructed entirely of mastic rather than roller materials. The foundation of pure elastic, hydrophobic polyurethane resins is this liquid substance. Additionally, when applied to a flat roof and exposed to air humidity, it polymerizes and transforms into a continuous membrane that resembles rubber and has superior waterproofing and protection qualities.

Mastic, like roofing material, offers many clear benefits for a flat roof: it is dependable and safe, highly resistant to UV rays, precipitation, and different microorganisms, highly adherent to any surface used in construction, and it does not change volume during polymerization. This material’s ease of application is equally captivating; it can be applied manually, with a brush, roller, or air.

Roof covering with roll materials

The selection of roofing material itself is a crucial consideration when designing a flat roof. Roller materials are those that are best suited to their characteristics. Roller cloths are laid on a slope overlap for a soft roof. If the roof slope exceeds 5%, there should be a 70 mm overlap in the inner layers of the carpet and a 100 mm overlap in the outer layers. The width of the grinding in any layer is 100 mm or more when the slope is less than 5%. Roller stripes are laid strictly in a single direction.

Should the panel deviate to one side during the glue process, you should attempt to reposition it without taking it apart. In the event that the outcome is ineffective, the panel’s glued portion should be removed and reglued with a 100 mm overlap.

Rolling canvases are layered, and if they are adhered to cold mastic, there must be a 12-hour gap between each layer’s sticker.

Thermal insulation in soft roofs

When considering a flat roof, there are two possible approaches to its insulation: external and internal. This approach is more popular because external thermal insulation is simple to install. Furthermore, insulation can be completed on a building that is either under construction or already operational with the aid of this method.

Thermal insulation for flat roofs

Depending on the number of layers, flat roof designs offer two options for thermal insulation: single-layer and two-layer. The selection of thermal insulation is impacted by roofing strength requirements and thermotechnical calculations. The "seams of the disposal" principle is applied for laying at the top of the heat-insulating plate supporting design. The joints between the upper and lower plates should likewise be "Route" when using a two-layer coating. Thermal insulation transitional sides are constructed in those locations where thermal insulation slabs are next to walls, parapets, and lanterns. One of the following techniques is applied in order to consolidate thermal insulation:

  • mechanical. The corrugated board is fastened with self -tapping screws, the reinforced concrete base is mounted with plastic dowels with a core;
  • adhesive;
  • with the help of ballast, which uses pebbles or paving slabs;
  • based.

The main errors of the installation of a flat roof

Inaccuracies in installation may result in the creation of so-called "cold bridges," which serve as windows, doors, concrete construction elements, or the dowels that hold the plates to the wall. These "cold bridges" have the potential to lose up to 50% of the heat, produce condensation, and then grow mold.

The use of fasteners with a metal nail is the most frequent cause of "cold bridge" formation. The application of cotton wool on a stone flat roof for roofing purposes. This is because there will be enough glue to hold it in place, but since cotton wool is attached to a plastic rod, using dowels is still an option in this situation.

Another way to prevent heat loss is to use two layers of insulation. However, in this instance, the upper insulation must be installed so as to obstruct the joints that exist between the lower slabs.

Employ slabs with large formats to cut down on the overall number of joints.

Furthermore, mistakes can be found at the outset; all you need to do is create a competent and understandable flat roof plan.

Do you want your home’s roof to serve purposes other than just keeping out precipitation from the sky? Do you want to transform it into an open sports field, leisure area, or lovely garden? The flat roof is then the best choice for you!

You must understand the flat roof device, including its design, plan, nodes, and composition, as well as how to warm the insulation on the roof, before beginning installation.

"When designing a flat roof with rolled materials, durability and practicality are the main considerations. Modified bitumen and EPDM are two examples of rolled materials that provide flexibility in installation and maintenance—important in light of changing weather conditions. In order to ensure the longevity and effectiveness of flat roofs, this article examines important factors like material selection, installation methods, and maintenance advice, highlighting the importance of flat roofs in contemporary construction practices."

The device of the roller roof

Roller roof

The foundation work for roofs made of rolled materials needs to be done with extra caution. They can be made of wood, used as a screed made of asphalt or cement, supporting prefabricated or monolithic reinforced concrete slabs, or used as insulation beneath an uneven base of reinforced concrete.

The wooden base is arranged into two floorings: the upper flooring, referred to as continuous, is composed of antiseptic boards measuring 20 x 50 mm, which are nailed to the lower flooring at a 45-degree angle. The lower flooring, known as the worker, is made of boards 22 mm thick, which are laid according to the supporting roof structures at a distance of not more than 30 cm from each other. There shouldn’t be any protrusions, legends, or fractures in the base caused by falling knots. Bitumen mastic is used to cover wooden flooring (rice, 1).

1. Rice, the roll roof mechanism along a continuous plank crate:

Working flooring is number one; protective flooring is number two; roofing material is number three; mastic is number five; roofing steel is number six; and roofing material is number seven.

2. Rice. The lighthouses’ screed mechanism:

Cement-sand mortar leveling (a), rule (b), lighthouse rail (a), fresh strip strip (a), rule (b), and solution box (a) are the four items. Five is the completed screed; six is the intermediate strip filled with solution following the removal of the lighthouse rails.

Roller roof device on a cement-sand screed. As a base for a roll coating, a screed of a cement-sand mortar of a brand of at least 50, a composition of 1: 2 or 1: 3 by weight with the introduction of antimoor-addeds-Potash (calcium chloride) or sodium carbon dioxide in an amount of 10-15% by mass is used. cement, as well as not cast sandy asphalt concrete, the strength of which should not be lower than 0.8 MPa. The thickness of the screeds when laying on concrete 10 – 15 mm, on hard monolithic slabs – 15 – 25 mm, on bulk heater – 25 – 30 mm. If the asphalt concrete is laid down on a loose insulation, it settles or cracks along with a rolled carpet. Asphalt concrete is used to arrange screeds only on slopes planes. Screeds on vertical and steep planes, such as, for example, parapets or auxiliary walls, are made of cement-sand solutions or concrete tiles. When setting screeds from cement-sand mortar, the temperature-shrinkable seams limit the screed and the shape of the squares with sides of 4×4 m are left every 6 m. To form temperature-shrinking seams, when setting the screed, wooden rails with a thickness of 10 mm are laid, which are then removed, and the seams are covered with roofing mastic and sealed with a strip of rolled material.

The surface of the base is aligned, all potholes and shells are sealed with cold bitumen primers. As a primer, a solution of Bituma VA -70/30 is used in a slowly evaporating solvent – kerosene or solar oil in a ratio of 1: (2 – 3). The freshly laid solution of the screed is impregnated with bitumen to a depth of at least 3 mm, and a film forms on the surface of the screed, which prevents the evaporation of water from the solution. The duration of the primer on hardened screeds of 12 hours, on freshly laid – at least 48 hours. Before the loading, the base is cleaned of garbage and dust. The base of the base is carried out by spraying the cold soil composition. The first layer is put on a completely dry surface. The load is performed according to grips with stripes of 3 – 4 m wide.

After laying the cement-sand solution, the cement-sand screed is arranged, with a maximum strip width of two meters. Using a trowel or a rule, align the surface of the laid solution (rice, 2). Gripping the previous cement-sand solution strip, one lays the next. It is essential to complete the device of all parapets, ventilation, and other mines, as well as outputs to the roof, before applying the screed.

Transition inclined sides with a width of 150 mm at an angle of 45 ° are made in the areas where the screeds are next to the building components projecting above the roof and on the begs of the roof base, rounding them for improved roller carpet glue (rice. 3, 16). Inventory fences are erected around the screed device’s area on slopes prior to work commencing. Overhangs are fastened with board boards.

3. Modifications to roofing using rolled materials: rice

A is where the roof meets the walls; B is where the same flat roof meets the parapet; Rolls of waterproof carpet (1) and screed (2) The third layer is extra carpet; Four: the side away from the concrete or solution; five: the wooden cork; six: the cement-sand mortar; seven: the standing clamp; eight: the protective apron; and nine: the protective gravel layer.

Rice. 4. The point where the combined roofs of two different stands meet:

One supporting panel, two roll waterproof carpets, three solution-sealed joints, four vapor-permeable layers, five stands, six metal aprons, and seven standing clamps are the components.

The device of the roller roof

The device of the roller roof. Preparatory processes when installing roofs from rolled materials is the preparation of rolled materials for the sticker and the preparation of soils and mastic. Begin with preparing the base for vapor barrier, including the installation of supports for the funnels of the internal drainage. Then the mastic is served on the roof. If peramin is used for vapor barrier, it is glued according to mastic. For stickers of roller materials, cold and hot mastics are used to the base. Cold bitumen mastic before laying on the base is melted to a temperature of 150 – 160 ° C, tar – up to 130 – 140 ° C. For the preparation of hot mastics, bitumen is melted to a temperature of 220 ° C, the alloy of fag and tar is up to 150 ° C; Then, powder mineral fillers, for example, talc, diatomite, trembling are introduced. Before laying on the base, roofing material should be prepared. To do this, it must be rolled up with the simultaneous cleaning of the surface from the rash and withstand within 24 hours. Materials that do not have a cover layer are rewound to the other side. If the roofing material has to be laid on cold mastic, it is not necessary to clean it of sprinkle, since it is absorbed by mastic, becoming its filler.

Rolled materials

Family mastics are used to glue the lobes of roller material. Layers of roller roof materials prepared on a bitumen basis are glued with bitumen mastics, and only with tar compositions. When stickers of the panels, it is necessary to take into account the magnitude of the slope of the roof, the direction of the flow of water, the direction of the dominant winds and the air temperature. With a roof slope of 1 – 2.5 %, roller coating is made from at least five layers, with a roof slope 2.5 – 7 % – from at least four layers, with a slope of 7 – 15 % – from at least three layers, over 15 % – two layers. The canvases are glued in the direction from the lower places to the water flow increased with the location of the paintings, with a slope of more than 15 % – from increased places to the water descended in the direction of drainage.

Rolling and trying on the roll is step one; adhering fishing line to the panel’s end and leafing it with a rowing is step two; rolling the panel out is step three; and rolling the panel with a rink is step four.

A) covering the roof with mastic; B) dispersing gravel using shovels in a pattern determined by the mastic layer.

To adhere the first panel, cut a strip from the roll that is half the panel’s width for a two-layer carpet and one-third the panel’s width for a three-layer carpet. As seen in rice, the roofer rolls out and tries on a roll. 5, a.

After fitting, the panels roll a roll, bend its end by 50 cm and apply mastic to a macemaker of the roll and base (rice. 5 B). The smeared part of the roll is glued to the base and thoroughly wiped from the middle of the canvas to the edges. Then the roofer applies mastic to the whole strip in front of the roll (rice. 5, c). Another roofer rolls a roll on the base (rice.5, d). After gluing the panel, the edges of the panel are spilled with a spatula, and then roll it with a roller (see. rice. 5, d). The following panels are glued in the same way.

By gradually separating one layer of carpet from another, the quality of the gluing roll materials is assessed; the space is made possible by the mastic or rolled material. The completed rolled carpet is covered with a layer of gravel for protection, laid on mastic, as demonstrated in rice. 6.

Initially, a layer of mastic up to 3 mm thick and 1 to 1.5 m wide is applied to the roof’s surface. The mastic layer is then scattered using gravel engines along its length. The roller carpet stickering process is an extremely time-consuming and expensive manual labor procedure. Recently, devices have been developed to automate roofing tasks. The same procedures that apply to other roller roofs also apply to glass lines or rolled fabric roofs. Adhesive fiberglass is applied to heated rubber-to-um mastics.

Roll roofing device on a wooden base. During the device of such roofs, it is necessary to lay an additional layer of the carpet, which is nailed with special nails. Nails are clogged into the seams of overlaps every 15 cm. In addition, on the surface of the panel, 16 – 19 nails per 1 m2 are scored in a checkerboard pattern. With a large slope of the roof slope (over 25%), roller materials are fixed in addition to the stickers with special nails with washers. The main advantage of roofs from rolled materials is their small mass, ease of device and resistance against corrosion. The disadvantages include their small fire resistance, high expenses of manual labor and expenses associated with the leaving the roof during operation. The service life of roller roofs is 10 – 15 years.

In the winter, roll up your roofing device. In winter conditions, the device of rolled-material roofs is permitted at outside air temperatures not lower than –20 °C. It is more prudent to use sheet asphalt to create screeds in the winter so that the heat can be used when sticking. After being cleared of snow, ice, and hoarfrost, the base in front of the sticker is heated to a high temperature and dried. Potash is injected into cement-sand mixtures to seal panel joints and seams at a rate of 10% by mass of cement. Before being laid, roll roofing materials are stored in a heated room and transported in insulated containers to the job site.

Repair of rolled roof. Roofs from rolled materials in the summer are subjected to intensive heating. This leads to the formation of bloating in a roof carpet, since in the pores of a wet base increases the pressure of water vapor, reaching 2 t/m2 when the carpet is heated to 60 ° C. With a high moisture content of the carpet, the carpet is accompanied by the formation of air and water bags, the flow of bitumen mastic when the carpet is heated by the sun or mechanical damage to the carpet. The size of the air bubbles can reach a height of 25 – 30 cm. In the premises of the bathrooms of the upper floors with combined roofs on the ceilings, condensation moisturization can be observed. The reason for this is the improper device of the joints of sewer risers with pipe -pulled trowels down, as a result of which the heat -defered qualities of the combined roof occur. If cracks and ruptures of the rolled carpet are detected, they should be cleared, and then covered with mastic and sealed with a strip of roofing material with a width of at least 20 cm. Those places of the roof where the rolled material was burnt, it is necessary to cut. The material is cut around the damaged area with a width of at least 10 cm. The formed seizure is thoroughly cleaned, lubricated with mastic and sealed with a piece of rolled material so that its edges do not fall on the old roof, t.e. In the end. Then this place is again covered with mastic and sealed with another layer of roller material, but in this case its edges by 15 cm should block the place of damage. In cases where the carpet canvas lagged behind the base, the latter is smeared with mastic and on top of the canvas glue a patch of 10 cm wide. In places of swelling of the roofing carpet, a cross incision is made and pulled by the carpet on four sides, the base is thoroughly cleared, dried, lubricated with mastic. After that, the material is unbended and glued, and a roofing patch is glued to this place on this place.

When performing the repair of roofs from rolled materials, ready -made mastic is used. Mastic can be prepared from a mixture of bitumen of various brands in a ratio of 2: 3 by weight with the addition of 10% filler by mass of bitumen. Talc is used as a filler, aweed to replace asbestos, environmentally not clean. To increase the rotten resistance of the roller carpet into mastic, antiseptic substances are introduced-3%fluoride or silica sodium, you can anthrapensen oil. With wear of existing roofing coatings, they should be replaced with a new coating of rolled materials. In this case, a survey of the grounds under the roof is carried out. When repairing, as well as with a soft roll bed, rolled materials before use are rewound to the other side to eliminate waves and folds during the stickers of the canvas. They are kept in a rolled form of at least 20 hours at a temperature of at least +15 ° C. The dependence of the number of layers of the canvas on the slope is the same as when the new roller roof is arranged. Rolled material canvases are glued with mastics, cold and hot.

The device of the roofing carpet begins with the pasting of the cups of the funnels of the internal drains with a cloth soaked in bitumen. Then rolled materials are glued in yendovs, m landing, on slopes and in the places of junction. Hot mastic is applied with brushes or buckets-shpers, and cold-troops. The surface of the glued materials is reduced and rolled with a roller weighing 60 – 100 kg. When sticking roll materials, carefully monitor the quality of work. Snowed sheets, bloating is immediately pierced or cut, then squeezed towards the hole until the mastic appears from it. When swinging the material from top to bottom, t.e. perpendicular to the skate, the panels of 150 – 200 mm are released on the skate on another slope. Rolled carpet with exhaust sewer risers, television antennas and other pipes is produced, arranging inclined sides around the pipe or rack. In this case, the upper edge of the carpet is covered with a metal apron, which is attached to the pipe with a fitting clamp (see. rice. 3).

Choose roofing material using one of two principles: either determine the material’s correspondence with the roof’s slope, or, alternatively, rebuild the supporting roof structures so that the material’s slopes match the chosen roofing material. The latter is more difficult because it will cost a lot of money to rebuild the load-bearing roof structures.

Coating of roof elements

On the roof with a slope of up to 15% of the cloth of the soft roof are glued along the cornice. On the roofs with a slope of more than 15% of the panels, they roll out in the direction of water flow so that the carpet does not slide. Roller cloths on the slopes are laid: each subsequent layer should overlap the joint of the elements of the lower. With a roof bias, more than 5% of the width of the overlap should be 70 mm in the inner layers of the carpet and 100 mm in external. With slopes of less than 5%, the width of the overlap in all layers should be at least 100 mm. Wildlings in adjacent layers should not be located one above the other, but should be removed from each other by half the width of the roll.

All rolled stripes are laid in one direction. On flat and gentle roofs (with a slope of less than 15%), the canvas of the roller carpet are glued only in a mechanized way, using a special sticking machine. Two people are needed for the sticker of roller materials: “layer” and “bristle”. The bristle applies mastic to the base and inner surface of the roll, and the layer adjusts and sticks the panels to the unwittingly base. It looks as follows. The layer tries on the panel to a particular section of the slope, after which it turns it to the left side 0.5 – 0.7 m. The bristle quickly applies a hot mastic or a row of cold mastic on the base and the turned off the end of the roll with a layer of a thickness of not more than 1 – 2 mm. After that, the layer glues the greased surfaces, carefully smoothing the panel with his hands in the direction from the middle to the edges. In the hands of the layer should be weaved in tarpaulin mittens. The layer goes to the glued end, and then the bristle applies sequentially to the mastic to areas 0.5 – 0.5 m wide in the direction of rolling the roll. At the end, the glued area is driven back and forth with a special roller, which ensures uniform distribution of mastic. The edges of the panel are trapped with a spatula.

You can try to move the panel without peeling it off if it slightly shifted to one side during the stickering process. If this approach is ineffective, trim the panel’s glued portion and properly affix it using a 100 mm overlook. Bloating, adhered to the stickers, sliced through or pierced with an awl, and then firmly pressed to the base until jammed. Arrange rolled panels in layers; when fastening roofing materials to the cold mastic, leave 12 hours between the stickers on each layer.

A layer of 3-5 mm thick mastic is applied to the outside of the bitumen roofing carpet, and it is filled with 3–6 mm of hot gravel. Bitumen-polymer roller carpets are coated with an outer layer of protection, while polymer carpets are occasionally coated with a layer of varnish made of specialized mastic. Roof components are coated in a variety of order: occasionally in front of the globe of slopes, occasionally after the main coating is installed, and occasionally simultaneously with the globe of slopes. They are connected to either a fork or an overlap in the roll roof device on different panel roof elements.


The frenums and yendov have the least slope, so they have four or five layers of roller carpet covering them, with three more layers being glued on top of each other right away. In the direction of the water flow, adjacent panels in the layer overlap one another by 100 mm. The pitched panels are stuck together with the upper layers. Three layers are conjugated into a plug on the slope of the light in the landing one after the other if the adjacent slope has a slope greater than 15%.

Rice. 7a. Covering of mosses and yendovs: b-with the connection of extra layers on the slope; a-with the combination of extra layers on the yendov’s slope).

The layers are mating on the slope itself if the slope of the nearby slope is less than 15% (rice, 7b). Wide (more than 600 mm) and long pieces of arbitrary length are glued across narrow yendov up to 600 mm. Apply mastic right away by folding a panel in half. The sticker is applied from the watershed toward the water intake.

Covering the roof’s skate

The end of the roof with a slope of more than 15% is parallel to the water drainage, while the roof horse with a slope of less than 15% is adhered with cloths positioned perpendicular to the water drain.

The first technique for covering the skate consists of two panels that are adhered to the skate 6 to form the lowest layer of the roller carpet. The 400 mm wide inner skate makes up the second layer. Two more panels, glued in, make up the third layer. The second skate panel, which is 500 mm wide, makes up the fourth layer. The two outer rolling panels, or the fifth layer, are arranged. The upper skate panel, which is 600 mm wide, is the final layer.

The second technique for covering the ridge involves adhering both the inner and outer layers perpendicular to the skate, releasing them after 200 mm for the inner layers and 250 mm for the outer layers through the horse.

The grounds for roofs from rolled materials must be performed especially carefully. They can be wooden, from supporting monolithic or prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs or in the form of a cement-sandy or asphalt concrete screed on an uneven reinforced concrete base or insulation. Preparatory processes when installing roofs from rolled materials is the preparation of rolled materials for the sticker and the preparation of soils and mastic. Begin with preparing the base for vapor barrier, including the installation of supports for the funnels of the internal drainage. Then the mastic is served on the roof. Roller roof. Roller roof device on a cement-sand screed. Rolled materials. Roll roofing device on a wooden base. Roll roofing device in winter. Repair of rolled roof.

When designing a flat roof with rolled materials, a few important factors need to be carefully taken into account. First and foremost, material selection is important. Modified bitumen and EPDM are two options that offer the flexibility and durability needed to withstand changes in the weather and structural movement. This flexibility makes maintenance simpler and lowers the chance of cracking.

Next, the longevity and efficacy of the roof are significantly influenced by its structure. In order to control temperature and avoid moisture accumulation, which can result in mold growth and structural damage, proper insulation is essential. In order to prevent water from collecting on the roof, which over time could erode the materials, adequate drainage is equally crucial.

The performance of the roof is also greatly impacted by the installation methods used. For weatherproofing and durability, it is crucial to make sure the materials are applied properly and firmly. Seams and edges must be properly sealed to keep water out, preserving the roof’s structural integrity and stopping leaks.

A flat roof composed of rolled materials will last longer with regular maintenance. In order to look for any indications of wear or damage, inspections should be done at least twice a year. Repairing small cracks or tears in the roofing material as soon as possible can stop bigger problems from arising and increase the roof’s lifespan.

In conclusion, meticulous planning and attention to detail are necessary when designing a flat roof made of rolled materials. Property owners can benefit from a strong and dependable roofing solution that endures the weather and safeguards the building underneath by selecting the appropriate materials, making sure the installation is done correctly, and performing routine maintenance.

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Alexandra Fedorova

Journalist, author of articles on construction and repair. I will help you understand the complex issues related to the choice and installation of the roof.

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